Main content

Cooked

Chicago suffered the worst heat disaster in U.S history in 1995, when 739 residents — mostly elderly and black — died over the course of one week. As COOKED links the deadly heat wave's devastation back to the underlying manmade disaster of structural racism, it delves deep into one of our nation's biggest growth industries: Disaster Preparedness.

Peabody Award-winning filmmaker Judith Helfand (Blue Vinyl, Everything's Cool), uses her signature serious-yet-quirky connect-the-dots-style to forge inextricable connections between the cataclysmic natural disasters we're willing to see and prepare for and the slow-motion disasters we're not. That is, until an extreme weather event hits and they are made exponentially more deadly and visible.

But whether it was the heat wave in Chicago or Hurricanes Katrina, Sandy, Harvey, Irma and Maria, all of these disasters share something key: they reveal the ways in which class, race, and zip code predetermine who was living on the edge to start with, who gets hurt the worst, who recovers and bounces back--and who doesn't. In COOKED, Helfand challenges herself and others to truly see and respond to the invisible man-made disasters taking place in towns and cities across the country before the next 'natural' disaster hits.

COOKED is an adaptation of 'HEAT WAVE: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago' (2002), Eric Klinenberg's groundbreaking book.

'Cooked chronicles the painful truth that waiting for the government can be hazardous to your health. The twin vulnerability of poverty and race placed African Americans at special risk in the 1995 Chicago heat wave. In America, zip code is more important than genetic code and some people and communities have the wrong complexion for protection.' Dr. Robert D. Bullard, Professor, Urban Planning and Environmental Policy, Texas Southern University, Author, Race, Place, and Environmental Justice After Hurricane Katrina

'This film is searing, smart and insightful...The film asks important questions with humor, humility, and humanity. This film can be used in a wide range of classrooms with social and ethnic studies and health policy as well as in public contexts of churches, community groups, and other venues.' Julie Sze, Professor of American Studies, Founding Director, Environmental Justice Project, University of California - Davis, Author, Noxious New York: The Racial Politics of Urban Health and Environmental Justice

'This searing, visceral post-mortem of the 1995 Chicago Heatwave...reminds us of the painfully deep spatial inequities and injustices that are baked into the very DNA of US cities. It reminds us that a systematic Poverty Emergency Plan would be more effective and pre-emptive than a Heat Emergency Plan and that so called 'natural' disasters are anything but natural, representing instead our collective failure to address poverty and inequality as an everyday crisis.' Julian Agyeman, Professor of Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning, Tufts University, Author, Introducing Just Sustainabilities: Policy, Planning, and Practice

'Cooked is a jolting reminder of the tragedy, and a scathing indictment of the social conditions that allowed so many to die - with the overwhelming majority of victims being minorities, the elderly, the poor...For those who don't know the story: You need to see this movie.' Richard Roeper, Chicago Sun Times

'Remembering not just the consequences of past socially created disasters, but also the causes, is a central challenge facing governments and individuals alike. Cooked tells a powerful story about the ways racial capitalism and a persistent lack of foresight collide to devastate communities, destroy families and ruin lives...The film forces us to think about the ways centuries of white supremacy and poor urban planning continue to require ethical and lasting changes to how we define disasters, and just as importantly, how we prepare for them.' Nik Heynen, Professor of Geography, Co-Director, Cornelia Walker Bailey Program on Land and Agriculture, University of Georgia

'Insightful...[The filmmaker] doesn't pull her punches...she addresses the situation head-on, explaining the real reasons why so many people died during this little-recognized disaster, chief among them segregation and poverty.' Cine-File

'A much-needed slap in the face to the American people...It's time that those of us with privilege do something to help those who don't.' Lorry Kikta, Film Threat

'Cooked: Survival by Zip Code shines a light on the issues of poverty, race, class, and education that underlie how natural disasters take lives.' Brian Tallerico, RogerEbert.com

'Helfand's brilliance in Cooked is precisely the way she shifts and re-orients our entire social mentality and approach to thinking about racism, poverty, and disaster. She asks us to think about and re-define racism and poverty as, indeed, disasters.' Tim Libretti, People's World

'Cooked locks in the details, vividly...Make[s] for enraging viewing...Re-examining that summer will always, always be worth the time and trouble. And the outrage.' Michael Phillips, Chicago Tribune

'[Helfand] makes a persuasive argument that it's time to broaden the definition of disaster--to include the vast and ongoing economic and community inequities.' Nina Metz, Chicago Tribune

'Those struggling to survive day to day, the film successfully argues, are already behind the eight ball long before a heatwave, hurricane or tornado ever hits. It's a stark realization, to be sure.' Lisa Trifone, Third Coast Review

'Makes a compelling case that it was not just the heat but poverty and racism that led to so many deaths.' Paul Caine, WTTW Chicago PBS

'Provides a sobering look back at one of the worst natural disasters in Chicago's recent history while shedding much-needed light on the slow-moving, man-made crisis of socioeconomic inequality that threatens not only the most vulnerable zip codes in Chicago, but cities and towns across the country.' Jay Koziarz, Curbed Chicago

'Cooked is an homage to those forgotten and left behind in the wake of disaster. It's a fervid call to redefine notions of 'disaster' and invest in security and dignity among the vulnerable before disaster strikes.' Diana Hernandez, Assistant Professor of Sociomedical Sciences, Columbia University

'This searing, visceral post-mortem of the 1995 Chicago Heatwave reminds us of the painfully deep spatial inequities and injustices that are baked into the very DNA of US cities. It reminds us that a systematic 'Poverty Emergency Plan' would be more effective and pre-emptive than a 'Heat Emergency Plan' and so-called 'natural' disasters are anything but natural, representing instead our collective failure to address poverty and inequality as an everyday crisis.' Julian Agyeman, Professor of Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning, Tufts University, Author, Introducing Just Sustainabilities: Policy, Planning, and Practice

'This is an important film that makes the often missed connections between poverty and environmental harms. Simple solutions to environmental threats focused solely on environmental responses will leave too many people in danger. I highly recommend this film for broadening awareness of the links between environmental justice, social justice, and poverty.' Nancy C. Loeb, Clinical Associate Professor of Law, Director, Environmental Advocacy Clinic, Northwestern University

Citation

Main credits

Helfand, Judith (film director)
Helfand, Judith (film producer)
Doremus, Fenell (film producer)

Other credits

Editor, Simeon Hutner, David E. Simpson; original music by T. Griffin; cinematography, Tod Lending, Stanley J. Staniski, Keith Walker.


Docuseek subjects

Distributor subjects

African-American Studies
American Studies
Anthropology
Climate Change/Global Warming
Environment
Environmental Justice
Food And Nutrition
Geography
Government
Health
History
Human Rights
Medicine
Nursing
Political Science
Poverty
Race and Racism
Social Work
Sociology
Urban Studies

Keywords

disaster capitalism; Chicago; 1995 Chicago heat wave, structural racism, systemic racism, manmade disaster, disaster preparedness, growth industry, class, race, zip code, climate change, Hurricane Sandy, Hurricane Katrina, Hurricane Harvey, Hurricane Irma, Hurricane Maria, Eric Klinenberg book, selling fans, selling air conditioners, refrigerated trucks, Linda Rae Murray, medical examiner, autopsies, Dr. Edmund Donoghue, non-violent deaths, crisis intervention workers, South Side, West Side, Gold Coast, Mayor Daley, poverty, epidemiologist, cooked, poor communities, under resourced, social autopsy, Cook County, task force, Paul Dailey, heat emergency plan, emergency command center, rebuilding levees, Section 8 housing, FHA, Federal Housing Association, contract buying, white speculators, redlining, segregation, life expectancy, 9/11, World Trade Center, billions of dollars, New Madrid Earthquake zone, MREs, FEMA, cooling program, absence of investment, eating healthy, access to healthy food, fresh moves, growing home, urban organic farm, Orrin Williams; "Cooked"; Bullfrog Films

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00:00:02,504 --> 00:00:05,254
(relaxing music)

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00:00:11,362 --> 00:00:14,445
(light guitar music)

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00:00:15,786 --> 00:00:19,036
(musical horn blaring)

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00:00:23,155 --> 00:00:28,155
(waves crashing) (somber music)

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00:00:36,370 --> 00:00:39,479
[Judith] What's the best
way to prepare for disaster?

6
00:00:39,480 --> 00:00:42,469
It's a question lots of
people are asking these days,

7
00:00:42,470 --> 00:00:45,719
as the planet heats up and
we find ourselves facing

8
00:00:45,720 --> 00:00:49,035
one unprecedented
disaster after another.

9
00:00:49,036 --> 00:00:52,036
(people chattering)

10
00:00:54,656 --> 00:00:55,815
New Jersey or something

11
00:00:55,816 --> 00:00:58,001
to get the fishnet. No, $1, $1.

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00:00:58,002 --> 00:01:00,997
I'm afraid you get
lucky to get it for $1.

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00:01:00,998 --> 00:01:04,081
(slow, somber music)

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00:01:27,600 --> 00:01:29,439
[Announcer] Lower
Manhattan, Staten Island,

15
00:01:29,440 --> 00:01:33,109
for the last place you
have to leave, mandatory.

16
00:01:33,110 --> 00:01:35,369
[Judith] Personally,
I'd never really had to grapple

17
00:01:35,370 --> 00:01:36,913
with disaster preparedness.

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00:01:38,150 --> 00:01:39,809
That is until Hurricane Sandy

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00:01:39,810 --> 00:01:41,949
was heading towards
my home town.

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00:01:41,950 --> 00:01:44,072
And are you ready
for this hurricane?

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00:01:44,073 --> 00:01:46,299
I got my batteries,
I got my flashlights,

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00:01:46,300 --> 00:01:47,795
I got my candles, I'm good.

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00:01:47,819 --> 00:01:49,463
All right, did you fill
your bathtub up?

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00:01:49,487 --> 00:01:50,529
That I didn't do, no.

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00:01:50,542 --> 00:01:52,758
Do you know why we're suppose
to fill our bathtubs up?

26
00:01:52,782 --> 00:01:54,564
- No, I don't, never did.
- I don't either.

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00:01:56,070 --> 00:01:57,399
If ever there was a moment

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00:01:57,400 --> 00:02:00,369
for an emergency plan and
a well-packed to-go kit,

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00:02:00,370 --> 00:02:03,179
this was it,
but I didn't have either.

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00:02:03,180 --> 00:02:06,479
So, I relied on my ability to go

31
00:02:06,480 --> 00:02:08,016
to my family in
Westchester County.

32
00:02:08,040 --> 00:02:08,959
Mom.

33
00:02:08,983 --> 00:02:11,674
18 safe miles from
the eye of the storm,

34
00:02:11,680 --> 00:02:14,633
where last minute preparedness
shopping started early.

35
00:02:18,480 --> 00:02:20,339
I just got lucky
on the generator.

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00:02:20,340 --> 00:02:22,769
I became number 99
out of a hundred.

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00:02:22,770 --> 00:02:24,587
There's no more generators.
My name was on

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00:02:24,611 --> 00:02:26,321
the list, that's how
I ended up with them.

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00:02:26,345 --> 00:02:27,960
I was here this morning at 5:30.

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00:02:27,984 --> 00:02:30,129
- What time were you there?
- I was there at seven.

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00:02:30,153 --> 00:02:31,029
What were you doing?

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00:02:31,043 --> 00:02:32,983
And that's how I
came to find out that

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00:02:33,007 --> 00:02:34,969
my big brother Alex,
a computer engineer

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00:02:34,970 --> 00:02:39,858
and competitive sailor, was
also a closet disaster master.

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00:02:39,859 --> 00:02:41,577
The reason you have
to have a generator

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00:02:41,601 --> 00:02:42,949
is so you can run the sump pump.

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00:02:42,950 --> 00:02:44,591
Without that
you're, you might as

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00:02:44,615 --> 00:02:46,229
well just kiss
your house goodbye.

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00:02:46,230 --> 00:02:47,679
[Judith] How do you run it?

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00:02:47,680 --> 00:02:48,512
On gas.

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00:02:48,513 --> 00:02:50,595
- [Judith] How much do you have?
- I'll show you.

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00:02:50,596 --> 00:02:54,109
We have 10, 20,
we have 25 gallons.

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00:02:54,110 --> 00:02:56,549
This is for a drill,
this is for the search light.

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00:02:56,550 --> 00:02:58,259
Ellen's phone, my cell phone.

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00:02:58,260 --> 00:03:00,169
We can chop ourselves
out of the house.

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00:03:00,170 --> 00:03:01,670
We can also dig ourselves out.

57
00:03:03,078 --> 00:03:04,919
By the way,
do you like our escape?

58
00:03:04,920 --> 00:03:06,209
[Judith] Are you serious?

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00:03:06,210 --> 00:03:07,699
Are we allowed to come to you

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00:03:07,700 --> 00:03:09,273
if you have power and we don't?

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00:03:09,297 --> 00:03:10,340
We'll let you.

62
00:03:10,364 --> 00:03:11,420
- OK.
- But besides,

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00:03:11,444 --> 00:03:13,422
we could always come get you.
That's why the boat.

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00:03:13,446 --> 00:03:14,488
- In the boat?
- Sure.

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00:03:14,493 --> 00:03:15,883
You're gonna put
mom in that boat?

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00:03:15,884 --> 00:03:17,389
[Alex] If we have to.

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00:03:17,390 --> 00:03:18,455
I'm not telling her that.

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00:03:18,456 --> 00:03:20,293
- Don't tell her.
- It'll freak her out.

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00:03:21,860 --> 00:03:26,369
You would not believe your
son, he has a boat

70
00:03:26,370 --> 00:03:31,308
in case we can't get out,
he could come and get us.

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00:03:31,309 --> 00:03:32,909
(laughing)

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00:03:32,910 --> 00:03:34,612
He has a boat?

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00:03:34,613 --> 00:03:37,089
[Announcer] In the meantime,
evacuations are really moving...

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00:03:37,090 --> 00:03:40,009
[Judith] Which
fortunately, we didn't need.

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00:03:40,010 --> 00:03:42,346
[Announcer] More downed
power lines in Babylon, with

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00:03:42,370 --> 00:03:44,509
explosive results and water
poured into the streets

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00:03:44,510 --> 00:03:46,279
of Great South Bay.

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00:03:46,280 --> 00:03:48,530
[Judith] Electricity
was a different story.

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00:03:49,990 --> 00:03:52,073
Mom, the lights keep
going on and off.

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00:03:54,880 --> 00:03:57,632
- Mike, you OK?
- [Mike] Are you OK?

81
00:03:57,633 --> 00:03:58,465
- Yeah.
- OK.

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00:03:58,466 --> 00:03:59,939
And Judy's with me, I'm fine.

83
00:03:59,940 --> 00:04:01,567
And I have,
I have everything I need.

84
00:04:01,591 --> 00:04:02,800
- Good, all right.
- Good, good.

85
00:04:02,824 --> 00:04:04,326
All right,
so that'll do us right now.

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00:04:04,350 --> 00:04:05,768
Yeah, that's all,
what can we do? OK.

87
00:04:05,792 --> 00:04:07,752
Can't do anything. All
right, well just let us know

88
00:04:07,776 --> 00:04:09,318
if you need anything.
Yeah, and Deloris

89
00:04:09,336 --> 00:04:12,297
is not home,
and Pat's not home either,

90
00:04:12,310 --> 00:04:13,436
she's in the hospital.

91
00:04:13,460 --> 00:04:14,294
[Man] Yeah, I know.

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00:04:14,318 --> 00:04:15,361
[Judith's Mom] Yeah, OK.

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00:04:15,385 --> 00:04:17,591
[Announcer] It is very
scary, the water is rushing.

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00:04:18,448 --> 00:04:20,457
It's your turn, go, go, go, go.

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00:04:20,458 --> 00:04:21,917
[Announcer] We heard
from her earlier,

96
00:04:21,932 --> 00:04:24,193
she was stuck in Highland
Park, New York, trying to get...

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00:04:24,217 --> 00:04:27,269
[Judith] Safe, cosy,
and with very bad letters,

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00:04:27,270 --> 00:04:30,533
I had plenty of time to think
about disaster preparedness.

99
00:04:32,490 --> 00:04:34,473
My mother had her
close-knit hallway.

100
00:04:35,410 --> 00:04:37,873
My brother and his family
had their generator.

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00:04:39,700 --> 00:04:42,032
And I had them.

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00:04:42,033 --> 00:04:44,616
(gentle music)

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00:04:46,280 --> 00:04:49,616
I was very aware of
how fortunate I was.

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00:04:49,617 --> 00:04:52,059
And I was equally aware
of how many people

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00:04:52,060 --> 00:04:54,053
in my own city, were not.

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00:04:59,310 --> 00:05:00,839
But I didn't always
look at disaster

107
00:05:00,840 --> 00:05:02,749
through the lens of privilege.

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00:05:02,750 --> 00:05:06,592
That all started with a
book I read about a disaster

109
00:05:06,593 --> 00:05:10,959
 that took place in
Chicago in July, 1995.

110
00:05:10,960 --> 00:05:14,293
One of the deadliest heatwaves
in U.S. history, so far.

111
00:05:17,020 --> 00:05:19,239
I can't say what
shocked me more,

112
00:05:19,240 --> 00:05:21,909
the fact that hundreds of
people died from the heat

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00:05:21,910 --> 00:05:26,910
in a major U.S. city,
or that I had no memory of it.

114
00:05:29,760 --> 00:05:32,069
This was a tragedy that
should've seared itself

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00:05:32,070 --> 00:05:34,723
into the mind and memory
of every American.

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00:05:36,440 --> 00:05:39,697
But it didn't, and that's
what shocked me most of all.

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00:05:46,220 --> 00:05:49,397
So I tracked down Eric
Klinenberg, the native Chicagoan

118
00:05:49,398 --> 00:05:51,879
who wrote the book
about the heatwave.

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00:05:51,880 --> 00:05:53,949
When I met him,
he was about to brief

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00:05:53,950 --> 00:05:57,093
a congressional subcommittee
in Washington, D.C.

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00:05:58,710 --> 00:06:02,649
Heatwaves kill more
Americans than all of the other

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00:06:02,650 --> 00:06:06,099
so-called natural
disasters combined.

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00:06:06,100 --> 00:06:09,639
Disasters are important not
just because they represent

124
00:06:09,640 --> 00:06:14,646
extreme cases, but also because
in looking at them closely,

125
00:06:14,670 --> 00:06:19,219
we learn to recognise conditions
that are always present,

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00:06:19,220 --> 00:06:20,633
but difficult to perceive.

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00:06:21,568 --> 00:06:23,739
And I wanna suggest
there's a kind of disaster

128
00:06:23,740 --> 00:06:25,979
in slow motion taking place

129
00:06:25,980 --> 00:06:28,623
in American communities
everywhere today.

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00:06:31,061 --> 00:06:32,395
[Judith] That
was what was unique

131
00:06:32,396 --> 00:06:34,554
about the heatwave in Chicago.

132
00:06:34,555 --> 00:06:38,879
It was a natural disaster
that revealed an unnatural one

133
00:06:38,880 --> 00:06:41,579
in a way that I'd
never really seen.

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00:06:41,580 --> 00:06:43,713
Mainly because I didn't have to.

135
00:06:48,040 --> 00:06:51,589
So I went to Chicago and drove
from the iconic lakefront

136
00:06:51,590 --> 00:06:54,229
to the south and west
sides of the city,

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00:06:54,230 --> 00:06:56,849
to the neighborhoods that had
suffered the most heat deaths

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00:06:56,850 --> 00:06:58,512
in 1995.

139
00:06:58,513 --> 00:07:01,096
(gentle music)

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00:07:03,000 --> 00:07:07,389
It was obvious, something
devastating had happened here,

141
00:07:07,390 --> 00:07:10,390
but I was pretty sure it had
nothing to do with the weather.

142
00:07:13,980 --> 00:07:16,253
This disaster was man-made.

143
00:07:20,730 --> 00:07:22,999
And that's about when
I started to question

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00:07:23,000 --> 00:07:26,827
our very definition of disaster.

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00:07:26,828 --> 00:07:29,995
(slow, serious music)

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00:07:41,020 --> 00:07:44,629
[Announcer] The sun is cooking
the center of the country.

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00:07:44,630 --> 00:07:47,012
All week,
roads have been buckling,

148
00:07:47,036 --> 00:07:48,649
people have been baking,

149
00:07:48,650 --> 00:07:51,709
and the mercury is
showing no mercy.

150
00:07:51,710 --> 00:07:54,793
(slow, somber music)

151
00:08:02,346 --> 00:08:04,359
(kids chattering)

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00:08:04,360 --> 00:08:06,339
[Judith] When I
started making this film,

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00:08:06,340 --> 00:08:09,419
Eric Klinenberg handed
me a worn VHS tape

154
00:08:09,420 --> 00:08:12,263
filled with news footage
of the 1995 heatwave.

155
00:08:13,210 --> 00:08:16,453
And I watched it over and over.

156
00:08:17,298 --> 00:08:19,399
(high-pitched whirring)

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00:08:19,400 --> 00:08:21,109
[Announcer] Business
is brisk for stores

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00:08:21,110 --> 00:08:22,579
selling fans and
air conditioners.

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00:08:22,580 --> 00:08:24,679
Many customers are trying
to bring them home tonight

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00:08:24,680 --> 00:08:27,239
to get them going in time
for tomorrow's expected

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00:08:27,240 --> 00:08:28,449
triple digit temperatures.

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00:08:29,208 --> 00:08:31,791
{\an8}(somber music)

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00:08:32,766 --> 00:08:34,160
{\an8}[Announcer] The sun sets tonight

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00:08:34,184 --> 00:08:36,562
{\an8}on one of the hottest
days in Chicago history,

165
00:08:36,586 --> 00:08:40,565
{\an8}an official high of 104
degrees at O'Hara Airport.

166
00:08:40,590 --> 00:08:42,209
{\an8}It's hot, it's hot out there.

167
00:08:42,210 --> 00:08:45,832
{\an8}We all walk out there,
it's very, very, very hot.

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00:08:46,150 --> 00:08:47,999
We go to extremes in Chicago,

169
00:08:48,000 --> 00:08:50,852
and that's why people love
Chicago, we go to extremes.

170
00:08:50,853 --> 00:08:53,603
(sirens blaring)

171
00:08:55,250 --> 00:08:57,429
[Judith] The mayor's clever
play on the word extremes

172
00:08:57,430 --> 00:08:59,729
took on a new
meaning the next day

173
00:08:59,730 --> 00:09:02,699
when all of a sudden
hospitals were overflowing

174
00:09:02,700 --> 00:09:05,803
with patients suffering
from heat-related illnesses.

175
00:09:09,610 --> 00:09:11,160
And then people started to die.

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00:09:15,117 --> 00:09:19,439
{\an8}It was a very hot night and
when I called my grandmother

177
00:09:19,440 --> 00:09:20,933
{\an8}she didn't answer the phone.

178
00:09:23,400 --> 00:09:26,453
{\an8}I thought that was strange
because she was always there.

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00:09:27,336 --> 00:09:29,645
{\an8}So I rushed right over here.

180
00:09:29,670 --> 00:09:31,809
{\an8}The door was open
because the paramedics

181
00:09:31,810 --> 00:09:32,899
{\an8}had already been in there.

182
00:09:32,900 --> 00:09:35,493
{\an8}And I walked in,
and I walked into the room,

183
00:09:36,440 --> 00:09:41,235
and I saw my grandmother
lying across the bed, face up.

184
00:09:41,236 --> 00:09:44,319
(slow, somber music)

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00:09:47,420 --> 00:09:48,929
When they were
examining her body

186
00:09:48,930 --> 00:09:51,459
I looked over at the window
and it was nailed shut,

187
00:09:51,460 --> 00:09:54,976
and I thought, "What would
make her think that by

188
00:09:54,977 --> 00:09:57,516
putting a nail in a window
would make her feel safe?

189
00:09:57,517 --> 00:09:59,407
Why wasn't this window open?"

190
00:10:03,900 --> 00:10:07,499
I walked to the
ambulance and I looked in

191
00:10:07,500 --> 00:10:09,949
and I saw these bodies in there

192
00:10:09,950 --> 00:10:14,259
and they just laid her on
top of the other bodies,

193
00:10:14,260 --> 00:10:15,973
like she was a cord of wood.

194
00:10:19,581 --> 00:10:22,542
And then I thought,
well, does that mean

195
00:10:22,553 --> 00:10:24,509
that they're gonna
go get other bodies

196
00:10:24,510 --> 00:10:26,710
and lay the bodies on
top of my grandmother?

197
00:10:30,425 --> 00:10:32,761
{\an8}Well the chief medical
examiner tells us tonight

198
00:10:32,806 --> 00:10:36,685
{\an8}that at least 50 more bodies
await examination tomorrow.

199
00:10:36,710 --> 00:10:38,729
{\an8}We did get a bit of a
break from the heat tonight

200
00:10:38,754 --> 00:10:41,668
{\an8}but the number of heat-related
deaths continues to grow.

201
00:10:42,060 --> 00:10:43,649
The crush was so intense,

202
00:10:43,650 --> 00:10:46,749
a refrigerated truck was
brought in to store bodies

203
00:10:46,750 --> 00:10:48,580
until staff could get to them.

204
00:10:49,640 --> 00:10:52,789
Now also, we just saw five
more refrigerated trucks

205
00:10:52,790 --> 00:10:53,859
go by us.

206
00:10:53,860 --> 00:10:56,359
Apparently the one refrigerated
truck they've got back there

207
00:10:56,360 --> 00:10:58,659
is already full,
they're bringing extras

208
00:10:58,660 --> 00:11:01,059
for what could be a very
long couple of days.

209
00:11:01,060 --> 00:11:02,599
It has been a break
from the heat,

210
00:11:02,600 --> 00:11:04,749
but they're now discovering
the bodies that were dead

211
00:11:04,750 --> 00:11:07,379
on Thursday and Friday,
and they're now discovering them

212
00:11:07,380 --> 00:11:09,053
as they begin to decompose.

213
00:11:12,843 --> 00:11:14,596
There had been no
announcements on the news,

214
00:11:14,620 --> 00:11:17,641
no discussion from the
city, no checking on people.

215
00:11:18,050 --> 00:11:20,189
{\an8}But the minute you see,
in the paper or on the news,

216
00:11:20,190 --> 00:11:22,749
{\an8}wherever I saw it first, that
there're refrigerator trucks,

217
00:11:22,750 --> 00:11:24,249
{\an8}that means there's
so many dead bodies

218
00:11:24,271 --> 00:11:26,231
{\an8}that the coroner doesn't
have room for 'em anymore.

219
00:11:26,255 --> 00:11:29,055
{\an8}That's enough, right there
you know you were in trouble.

220
00:11:30,320 --> 00:11:31,820
You can't bring any more in.

221
00:11:32,835 --> 00:11:34,909
(slow, somber music)

222
00:11:34,910 --> 00:11:37,823
I was at the medical examiner's
office for a solid week.

223
00:11:39,180 --> 00:11:42,415
They were doing autopsies
very nearly around the clock.

224
00:11:42,970 --> 00:11:44,917
{\an8}You almost had to run a gauntlet

225
00:11:44,941 --> 00:11:47,879
{\an8}to walk through anywhere,

226
00:11:47,904 --> 00:11:52,357
{\an8}to avoid touching a
tray that held a body.

227
00:11:53,882 --> 00:11:55,195
It looked like a war zone.

228
00:11:58,890 --> 00:12:00,720
With the medical
examiner's office,

229
00:12:01,410 --> 00:12:04,517
{\an8}they couldn't afford to go
through all of the steps,

230
00:12:04,518 --> 00:12:07,873
{\an8}so, everybody had to
go and find their own.

231
00:12:10,610 --> 00:12:12,979
{\an8}So I had to get up in a
truck and there was maybe 80

232
00:12:12,980 --> 00:12:18,076
{\an8}to a hundred remains or
more, in the bags.

233
00:12:18,100 --> 00:12:19,969
{\an8}So basically had to go
through every remain,

234
00:12:19,970 --> 00:12:21,118
{\an8}checking toe tags,

235
00:12:21,661 --> 00:12:24,956
until we could find the persons
that we were coming to get.

236
00:12:24,970 --> 00:12:28,239
So in event of someone
that I was picking up,

237
00:12:28,240 --> 00:12:30,799
it was like maybe a
couple of people on top.

238
00:12:30,800 --> 00:12:33,349
So you had to just
try to move them over.

239
00:12:33,350 --> 00:12:36,469
It was just, it was,
yeah it was sad really.

240
00:12:36,470 --> 00:12:37,570
You know it's a sight.

241
00:12:40,720 --> 00:12:43,223
It did have an emotional
effect on all of us.

242
00:12:44,268 --> 00:12:47,579
We couldn't just sit and
boo hoo with the family.

243
00:12:47,580 --> 00:12:50,043
We had to maintain
our professionalism.

244
00:12:54,000 --> 00:12:57,029
{\an8}Saturday morning I came
in and we had 87 cases.

245
00:12:57,030 --> 00:13:00,459
{\an8}Sunday morning we had 83
cases and today we have 117.

246
00:13:00,460 --> 00:13:01,923
{\an8}Now our average is 17.

247
00:13:03,350 --> 00:13:04,329
So what we're seeing here

248
00:13:04,330 --> 00:13:06,383
is we're seeing an
excess mortality.

249
00:13:09,600 --> 00:13:11,833
I'm around death
on a daily basis.

250
00:13:12,850 --> 00:13:14,253
'95 was frightening.

251
00:13:17,030 --> 00:13:22,030
{\an8}This was in a SRO, which is a
single room occupancy hotel.

252
00:13:22,910 --> 00:13:25,169
These are folks that couldn't
afford air conditioning,

253
00:13:25,170 --> 00:13:27,520
or the electricity to
run the air conditioning.

254
00:13:28,850 --> 00:13:30,449
You can see the
windows are closed

255
00:13:30,450 --> 00:13:32,500
and there's not even
a fan in the window.

256
00:13:33,920 --> 00:13:35,769
There were two people
at the same time.

257
00:13:35,770 --> 00:13:37,539
One of 'em was having
a heart attack,

258
00:13:37,540 --> 00:13:39,633
and another guy was
DOA from the heat.

259
00:13:46,260 --> 00:13:47,869
They brought him out
and took him over

260
00:13:47,870 --> 00:13:49,543
to the medical
examiner's office.

261
00:13:51,270 --> 00:13:54,339
And unfortunately this is
a sight that I saw often,

262
00:13:54,340 --> 00:13:58,503
but usually victims of
homicides, not from heat.

263
00:14:07,170 --> 00:14:09,609
{\an8}We cannot say
exactly how many deaths

264
00:14:09,610 --> 00:14:12,329
{\an8}are a direct result of the heat.

265
00:14:12,330 --> 00:14:15,899
{\an8}But we know that the number
of non-violent deaths

266
00:14:15,900 --> 00:14:18,443
{\an8}over the last four days
continued to climb.

267
00:14:19,390 --> 00:14:20,969
In the last four...

268
00:14:20,970 --> 00:14:23,369
[Judith] Non-violent deaths?

269
00:14:23,370 --> 00:14:25,609
I had to stop and replay
the mayor's comment

270
00:14:25,610 --> 00:14:28,449
a few times over,
to try and wrap my head around

271
00:14:28,450 --> 00:14:30,143
what he meant by that term.

272
00:14:30,832 --> 00:14:34,211
That the number of non-violent
deaths continued to...

273
00:14:34,230 --> 00:14:36,869
[Judith] Because being cooked
to death behind closed doors

274
00:14:36,870 --> 00:14:39,763
seemed to me to be a
pretty violent way to die.

275
00:14:46,181 --> 00:14:48,517
Oh when you have three,
when you have 339 people,

276
00:14:48,558 --> 00:14:51,089
there's a lot of people dead,
I mean, that's a lot of people.

277
00:14:53,146 --> 00:14:54,439
[Man At Door] This Mr. Patrick?

278
00:14:54,463 --> 00:14:55,755
[Announcer] Crisis intervention

279
00:14:55,774 --> 00:14:57,919
workers respond to
calls of concern.

280
00:14:57,943 --> 00:15:00,609
A 60-year-old woman
hadn't been heard from.

281
00:15:00,610 --> 00:15:04,109
Take all this away from
here, and open this window up.

282
00:15:04,110 --> 00:15:05,629
Well I'm on the first floor.

283
00:15:05,630 --> 00:15:07,829
[Man] Oh you afraid of
somebody throwing some bricks

284
00:15:07,830 --> 00:15:09,339
- or something?
- They'd come in.

285
00:15:09,340 --> 00:15:10,970
[Man] Oh,
you think that might come in?

286
00:15:10,994 --> 00:15:12,481
You have a screen
here, don't you dear?

287
00:15:12,482 --> 00:15:13,314
[Woman] Yes sir.

288
00:15:13,315 --> 00:15:14,969
They'll break the screen open?

289
00:15:14,970 --> 00:15:16,722
What will a sharp
knife do to a screen?

290
00:15:16,723 --> 00:15:19,069
[Man] Yes, it will.

291
00:15:19,070 --> 00:15:21,499
[Judith] As I watched
this agonizing choice

292
00:15:21,500 --> 00:15:24,669
between staying safe
and staying cool,

293
00:15:24,670 --> 00:15:26,719
I thought about the
nine refrigerated trucks

294
00:15:26,720 --> 00:15:29,909
that were parked outside
the county morgue for weeks,

295
00:15:29,910 --> 00:15:33,969
each one filled with hundreds
of deceased Chicago residents.

296
00:15:33,970 --> 00:15:36,869
And how ironic it was,
that they finally got

297
00:15:36,870 --> 00:15:40,453
the air conditioning they
needed while awaiting autopsy.

298
00:15:43,947 --> 00:15:46,575
{\an8}Cooler air came rushing
in across the country today,

299
00:15:46,610 --> 00:15:47,983
{\an8}after a brutal heatwave.

300
00:15:49,810 --> 00:15:52,779
Hardest hit was the city
of Chicago and its elderly.

301
00:15:52,780 --> 00:15:53,949
Many are wondering tonight,

302
00:15:53,950 --> 00:15:56,999
how could heat kill
so many people?

303
00:15:57,000 --> 00:16:00,729
{\an8}Sexiness for the new media
was it was about the heat.

304
00:16:00,730 --> 00:16:02,459
{\an8}But, the real story is,

305
00:16:02,460 --> 00:16:04,710
{\an8}why were people in these
neighborhoods dying?

306
00:16:06,560 --> 00:16:09,179
People weren't dying
on the north side,

307
00:16:09,180 --> 00:16:11,130
people weren't dying
in the Gold Coast.

308
00:16:14,644 --> 00:16:17,867
People were dying on the
south and west sides.

309
00:16:22,020 --> 00:16:24,149
[Judith] Eric gave me
the medical examiner's list

310
00:16:24,150 --> 00:16:26,453
of heatwave victims
with their addresses,

311
00:16:28,510 --> 00:16:30,799
and I went from
building to building

312
00:16:30,800 --> 00:16:33,609
wondering why there were more
deaths in some neighborhoods

313
00:16:33,610 --> 00:16:36,389
than others,
and about all the elements

314
00:16:36,390 --> 00:16:40,459
that lead up to someone
dying a slow, violent death

315
00:16:40,460 --> 00:16:42,233
alone in the heat.

316
00:16:44,230 --> 00:16:49,236
Why is it that people die
during an extreme weather event?

317
00:16:49,260 --> 00:16:52,139
{\an8}Well I think people
die from the heat

318
00:16:52,140 --> 00:16:56,163
{\an8}for two highly
correlated reasons.

319
00:16:58,010 --> 00:17:02,779
One is 'cause it's hot
and they're not able

320
00:17:02,780 --> 00:17:05,609
to defend themselves
against the heat.

321
00:17:05,610 --> 00:17:10,610
And that defense could be in
terms of opening their windows.

322
00:17:11,400 --> 00:17:13,019
And in poor,
vulnerable communities,

323
00:17:13,020 --> 00:17:15,309
people don't wanna
open their windows.

324
00:17:15,310 --> 00:17:18,089
It could be by turning
on the air conditioner,

325
00:17:18,090 --> 00:17:19,559
and in vulnerable communities,

326
00:17:19,560 --> 00:17:21,979
people don't have
air conditioning.

327
00:17:21,980 --> 00:17:25,809
And it could also be
going outside their house

328
00:17:25,810 --> 00:17:29,299
and going to an institution
where there is air conditioning.

329
00:17:29,300 --> 00:17:32,679
For example, a public library
might have air conditioning.

330
00:17:32,680 --> 00:17:34,539
Or even the lobby of
an apartment house

331
00:17:34,540 --> 00:17:36,009
might have air conditioning.

332
00:17:36,010 --> 00:17:40,689
And, vulnerable communities
tend not to have those as well.

333
00:17:40,690 --> 00:17:43,499
The second,
and intimately related factor,

334
00:17:43,500 --> 00:17:47,879
is if you have a
pre-existing condition,

335
00:17:47,880 --> 00:17:50,039
so it's already
weakened your body,

336
00:17:50,040 --> 00:17:53,459
then clearly it's gonna be
easier for the heat to kill you.

337
00:17:53,460 --> 00:17:55,689
{\an8}[Announcer] It can
happen so quickly.

338
00:17:55,690 --> 00:17:59,819
Temperature inside soars, your
body can't regulate the heat.

339
00:17:59,820 --> 00:18:02,539
It can happen to
anyone of any age,

340
00:18:02,540 --> 00:18:04,993
but seniors are
particularly vulnerable.

341
00:18:06,673 --> 00:18:08,386
The question is,
what do we do about that?

342
00:18:08,410 --> 00:18:11,689
Can we minimize
those excess deaths?

343
00:18:11,690 --> 00:18:13,967
And the answer is, yes,
we could have minimized it.

344
00:18:19,411 --> 00:18:21,413
We've offered that,
but there's not a great number

345
00:18:21,438 --> 00:18:23,529
of people who've come in
and taken advantage of it.

346
00:18:24,107 --> 00:18:26,482
There's really very
little explanation for it.

347
00:18:27,485 --> 00:18:28,527
Thank you.

348
00:18:35,437 --> 00:18:38,679
[Judith] Do you think this
has anything to do with race?

349
00:18:38,680 --> 00:18:43,806
I think that, I have to go with,

350
00:18:43,830 --> 00:18:46,009
there's a saying
in Chicago that's...

351
00:18:46,010 --> 00:18:47,649
everything is about race.

352
00:18:47,650 --> 00:18:50,859
The majority of the people
that died were minority,

353
00:18:50,860 --> 00:18:52,459
mostly poor.

354
00:18:52,460 --> 00:18:54,409
You don't have to
be poor to be black,

355
00:18:54,410 --> 00:18:56,509
you don't have to
be black to be poor.

356
00:18:56,510 --> 00:18:57,545
But...

357
00:19:00,060 --> 00:19:02,020
{\an8}[Judith] Just as many
Chicagoans were starting

358
00:19:02,044 --> 00:19:04,579
{\an8}to realise that the black
community had suffered

359
00:19:04,580 --> 00:19:07,039
{\an8}a disproportionate
number of deaths,

360
00:19:07,040 --> 00:19:09,233
{\an8}Mayor Daley went
on the offensive.

361
00:19:09,570 --> 00:19:12,019
[Announcer] For his part,
Daley pointed a finger of blame

362
00:19:12,020 --> 00:19:14,409
at some of the families
of the senior citizens

363
00:19:14,410 --> 00:19:17,009
who died all alone
in the hellish heat.

364
00:19:17,010 --> 00:19:21,229
We have to appeal, to all
the family members of seniors,

365
00:19:21,230 --> 00:19:24,509
to call, go over there,
see their mother or father

366
00:19:24,510 --> 00:19:26,510
or their aunt and
uncle, that is a must.

367
00:19:27,380 --> 00:19:29,029
{\an8}I think there was denial.

368
00:19:29,030 --> 00:19:33,649
{\an8}A lot of the heads of
state were in denial

369
00:19:33,650 --> 00:19:35,609
{\an8}about what was going on you see,

370
00:19:35,610 --> 00:19:39,083
{\an8}because it didn't
touch them directly.

371
00:19:40,240 --> 00:19:43,423
And because it didn't,
they weren't involved directly,

372
00:19:45,120 --> 00:19:46,523
they didn't feel the pinch.

373
00:19:47,520 --> 00:19:50,639
Because they had their
air-conditioned places.

374
00:19:50,640 --> 00:19:52,419
And they had their
swimming pools

375
00:19:52,420 --> 00:19:54,500
and things that
they could go to.

376
00:19:54,501 --> 00:19:57,789
Whereas, our people didn't
have anyplace to go.

377
00:19:57,790 --> 00:19:59,871
[Judith] Do you think
it's really about the heat?

378
00:19:59,872 --> 00:20:04,093
No, no,
it's just about the lack of,

379
00:20:05,750 --> 00:20:08,350
oh God help me,
I don't wanna say that.

380
00:20:09,587 --> 00:20:12,519
We'll just say,
it's about a lack of compassion

381
00:20:12,520 --> 00:20:14,525
on a lot of parts.

382
00:20:14,526 --> 00:20:15,999
It's not really about the heat.

383
00:20:16,000 --> 00:20:18,679
I think that there's
no need for poverty,

384
00:20:18,680 --> 00:20:20,499
- as much poverty...
- As we have.

385
00:20:20,515 --> 00:20:22,708
...in our community as there is.

386
00:20:25,830 --> 00:20:27,499
[Judith] Even
after the heat broke,

387
00:20:27,500 --> 00:20:29,829
the death count
continued to climb.

388
00:20:29,830 --> 00:20:33,599
And when it reached
525, the mayor shifted

389
00:20:33,600 --> 00:20:35,259
from blaming the families,

390
00:20:35,260 --> 00:20:37,922
to questioning the medical
examiner's numbers,

391
00:20:38,390 --> 00:20:40,959
{\an8}which turned out to be a
pretty effective distraction.

392
00:20:40,960 --> 00:20:43,279
{\an8}You can't contribute
it all to heat.

393
00:20:43,280 --> 00:20:45,049
{\an8}- But I mean...
- You can't, it's impossible.

394
00:20:45,050 --> 00:20:47,180
{\an8}The mayor thinks there
figures should be examined,

395
00:20:47,181 --> 00:20:49,031
{\an8}the medical examiner's
office thinks

396
00:20:49,055 --> 00:20:50,728
{\an8}that they will
withstand scrutiny.

397
00:20:50,729 --> 00:20:53,274
{\an8}We would be delighted to
have these figures examined.

398
00:20:54,424 --> 00:20:56,468
[Judith] While the mayor
and the medical examiner

399
00:20:56,480 --> 00:20:58,999
were having their
very public argument,

400
00:20:59,000 --> 00:21:01,039
the figures were being checked

401
00:21:01,040 --> 00:21:04,469
by the city's own
chief epidemiologist.

402
00:21:04,470 --> 00:21:07,009
I knew that people
would be dying

403
00:21:07,010 --> 00:21:09,339
throughout the city of
Chicago of the heat,

404
00:21:09,340 --> 00:21:12,436
but dying in hospitals,
and the doctors would say,

405
00:21:12,437 --> 00:21:14,096
"Well,
I've been treating this guy

406
00:21:14,097 --> 00:21:16,396
for heart disease
for three years,

407
00:21:16,397 --> 00:21:19,469
and now he died
of heart disease."

408
00:21:19,470 --> 00:21:22,009
And so never would the word heat

409
00:21:22,010 --> 00:21:24,699
appear anywhere on
the death certificate.

410
00:21:24,700 --> 00:21:27,061
[Judith] So are you
suggesting that there were

411
00:21:27,085 --> 00:21:29,179
actually more deaths
than are accounted for?

412
00:21:29,180 --> 00:21:30,569
Oh yes.

413
00:21:30,570 --> 00:21:33,470
I couldn't see how the number
wouldn't be bigger than 525.

414
00:21:36,080 --> 00:21:38,219
So we added up the
total number of people

415
00:21:38,220 --> 00:21:42,089
who died during July,
and we subtracted this baseline

416
00:21:42,090 --> 00:21:45,069
of the expected number
of deaths per day,

417
00:21:45,070 --> 00:21:48,453
and the number
came out to be 726,

418
00:21:50,490 --> 00:21:55,419
And so, they're arguing about
whether 525 was too big,

419
00:21:55,420 --> 00:21:58,737
and I now am saying,
"It's much too small."

420
00:21:59,816 --> 00:22:02,659
{\an8}(light, serious music)

421
00:22:02,660 --> 00:22:04,419
{\an8}[Judith] The immensity
of the death toll

422
00:22:04,420 --> 00:22:05,832
{\an8}got summed up by this image,

423
00:22:06,454 --> 00:22:08,707
which is not what
you'd expect to see

424
00:22:08,732 --> 00:22:12,075
in a suburban cemetery
in America's heartland.

425
00:22:13,450 --> 00:22:14,829
[Announcer] 41
people were buried

426
00:22:14,830 --> 00:22:17,079
in a potter's field
near Chicago today,

427
00:22:17,080 --> 00:22:20,359
forgotten victims of this
summer's deadly heatwave.

428
00:22:20,360 --> 00:22:22,119
Their bodies had lain since July

429
00:22:22,120 --> 00:22:24,223
in the county morgue, unclaimed.

430
00:22:25,940 --> 00:22:28,763
We had the traditional
burial liturgy.

431
00:22:30,860 --> 00:22:33,123
We had the memorial
service here.

432
00:22:35,770 --> 00:22:37,639
{\an8}Starting up here,
and coming down here,

433
00:22:37,640 --> 00:22:39,420
{\an8}past right up to the
monument, yes.

434
00:22:42,680 --> 00:22:46,700
Claude Sanders,
William Reedsville,

435
00:22:47,670 --> 00:22:50,763
Lydia Payne, Ethel Young,

436
00:22:51,650 --> 00:22:56,399
Michael Terino, John Kinsinger,

437
00:22:56,400 --> 00:23:00,839
Joe Stone, Helen Stegman,

438
00:23:00,840 --> 00:23:04,959
Richard Jones, Jose Molina,

439
00:23:04,960 --> 00:23:08,203
Mildred Kaldig, Robert Shaffer.

440
00:23:11,339 --> 00:23:13,039
[Judith] It was
practically Fall,

441
00:23:13,040 --> 00:23:16,349
and for most Chicagoans,
back to business as usual,

442
00:23:16,350 --> 00:23:17,984
before the city
finally announced

443
00:23:17,985 --> 00:23:20,053
the official heat death numbers.

444
00:23:21,071 --> 00:23:22,989
{\an8}There are some stunning
new figures from the

445
00:23:23,011 --> 00:23:25,329
{\an8}Chicago Health Department
dramatically increasing

446
00:23:25,354 --> 00:23:27,934
{\an8}the already tragic death
toll from July's heatwave.

447
00:23:28,251 --> 00:23:32,005
The city now says 733
Chicago residents died,

448
00:23:32,030 --> 00:23:34,819
adding more than 200
to the original total.

449
00:23:34,820 --> 00:23:37,119
[Judith] And within
weeks, the final death tally

450
00:23:37,120 --> 00:23:40,646
had to be adjusted yet
again, to 739,

451
00:23:40,647 --> 00:23:44,763
the equivalent of two jumbo
jets crashing in mid-air.

452
00:23:45,900 --> 00:23:48,989
Did you feel a sense of
outrage at that number

453
00:23:48,990 --> 00:23:49,893
when it came out?

454
00:23:50,930 --> 00:23:52,880
I want to answer
this very carefully.

455
00:23:54,970 --> 00:23:57,456
James Baldwin said,
"To be black in America

456
00:23:57,457 --> 00:24:00,799
is to be enraged
almost all of the time."

457
00:24:00,800 --> 00:24:05,799
And so, in that spirit, I'm
enraged almost all of the time.

458
00:24:05,800 --> 00:24:08,469
I'm of that generation,
so yes, I was enraged.

459
00:24:08,470 --> 00:24:10,649
Was I surprised or shocked?

460
00:24:10,650 --> 00:24:13,259
No, I know what happens
during heatwaves.

461
00:24:13,260 --> 00:24:15,989
And I could see that the city
was not responding accordingly.

462
00:24:15,990 --> 00:24:18,409
And even if the
city had responded

463
00:24:18,410 --> 00:24:22,679
in a more appropriate way,
we would've seen differences,

464
00:24:22,680 --> 00:24:25,669
hopefully not as great,
between poor communities

465
00:24:25,670 --> 00:24:27,939
that are under-resourced
and communities

466
00:24:27,940 --> 00:24:30,069
that are better resourced.

467
00:24:30,070 --> 00:24:33,639
This is a map that
has two things going on

468
00:24:33,640 --> 00:24:34,969
at the same time.

469
00:24:34,970 --> 00:24:37,639
We've put these circles
in those communities

470
00:24:37,640 --> 00:24:40,209
that have the highest
poverty rates.

471
00:24:40,210 --> 00:24:44,519
And then what we've done is,
we've shaded in the communities

472
00:24:44,520 --> 00:24:48,349
that had the highest
mortality rates from the heat.

473
00:24:48,350 --> 00:24:51,399
And as you can see,
they're almost perfect overlaps.

474
00:24:51,400 --> 00:24:53,499
So the question is,
did people die of the heat,

475
00:24:53,500 --> 00:24:55,449
or did they die of
the social conditions

476
00:24:55,450 --> 00:24:56,829
in these neighborhoods?

477
00:24:56,830 --> 00:24:58,049
And the answer is both.

478
00:24:58,050 --> 00:25:01,439
Had the heat not occurred, they
wouldn't have died that week

479
00:25:01,440 --> 00:25:05,999
that's for sure, but they
would've died too soon anyway,

480
00:25:06,000 --> 00:25:08,790
and the social
conditions place them

481
00:25:10,589 --> 00:25:14,899
in a ambiance, or an
environment in which the heat

482
00:25:14,900 --> 00:25:17,289
would be most likely
to strike these people,

483
00:25:17,290 --> 00:25:18,910
and to kill them.

484
00:25:18,911 --> 00:25:21,578
(serious music)

485
00:25:32,322 --> 00:25:34,469
The beginning of
this project I decided

486
00:25:34,470 --> 00:25:36,429
I was gonna kind of
adapt this phrase

487
00:25:36,430 --> 00:25:37,597
that the coroners use,

488
00:25:37,841 --> 00:25:39,092
{\an8}which is to say that,

489
00:25:39,117 --> 00:25:43,946
{\an8}"We study death in order
to better understand

490
00:25:43,947 --> 00:25:46,139
{\an8}and protect life."

491
00:25:46,140 --> 00:25:48,019
{\an8}And that was the point of
doing a social autopsy,

492
00:25:48,468 --> 00:25:51,680
to study this case
of catastrophic death

493
00:25:51,714 --> 00:25:53,919
in order to better
protect the lives

494
00:25:53,944 --> 00:25:57,817
of people in Chicago and then
people in cities everywhere.

495
00:26:00,460 --> 00:26:02,119
[Judith] While
researching his book,

496
00:26:02,120 --> 00:26:04,379
Eric Klinenberg discovered
that Cook County

497
00:26:04,380 --> 00:26:06,689
had collected the
personal effects

498
00:26:06,690 --> 00:26:07,950
of the unclaimed heat victims.

499
00:26:07,951 --> 00:26:08,941
Thanks.

500
00:26:11,449 --> 00:26:13,655
[Judith] Their things
are now kept in boxes

501
00:26:13,680 --> 00:26:16,923
in a sprawling storage
facility and auction house.

502
00:26:20,010 --> 00:26:21,749
One of the things
that was so devastating

503
00:26:21,750 --> 00:26:23,459
about the heat wave
is, not just simply

504
00:26:23,460 --> 00:26:26,519
that so many people died,
it's the way that they died,

505
00:26:26,520 --> 00:26:28,183
alone and isolated.

506
00:26:32,290 --> 00:26:36,063
There's a small desk,
and a chair, a little rug,

507
00:26:37,080 --> 00:26:40,793
a very small bed,
I don't see any windows.

508
00:26:41,660 --> 00:26:43,423
You can tell it's
a very tiny room.

509
00:26:46,960 --> 00:26:51,960
I remember this file, Emilio
Aguirre, awarded a Bronze Star.

510
00:26:52,800 --> 00:26:54,719
He served for almost two
years in World War II

511
00:26:54,720 --> 00:26:55,620
and was a private.

512
00:26:56,600 --> 00:27:01,600
And look at this contrast
of the decorated war veteran

513
00:27:02,240 --> 00:27:05,163
and the 85-year-old
senior citizen.

514
00:27:06,810 --> 00:27:09,749
It reminds us how
easy it is in some way

515
00:27:09,750 --> 00:27:13,357
to fall through the
cracks and go from being

516
00:27:13,358 --> 00:27:17,419
an honored soldier,
or a close relative,

517
00:27:17,420 --> 00:27:20,959
to being someone who
is discovered alone

518
00:27:20,960 --> 00:27:22,233
on a hot summer day.

519
00:27:24,330 --> 00:27:27,623
But this box and these files
are full of stories like this.

520
00:27:33,720 --> 00:27:35,909
[Judith] When it came time
for Mayor Daley and his team

521
00:27:35,910 --> 00:27:39,763
to take the life and death
lessons from the 1995 heat wave,

522
00:27:39,788 --> 00:27:42,499
they didn't concern
themselves with human stories

523
00:27:42,510 --> 00:27:44,389
or data-driven maps.

524
00:27:44,390 --> 00:27:48,149
Instead,
they created a task force.

525
00:27:48,150 --> 00:27:49,699
No one ever
appoints a task force

526
00:27:49,700 --> 00:27:51,399
to find out what's going on.

527
00:27:51,400 --> 00:27:53,339
They always appoint
the task force

528
00:27:53,340 --> 00:27:55,519
to make the problem go away.

529
00:27:55,520 --> 00:27:59,029
And the problem in this case
might be seen as the heat,

530
00:27:59,030 --> 00:28:00,636
but you didn't have
to make that go

531
00:28:00,660 --> 00:28:02,149
away 'cause that
was already gone.

532
00:28:02,150 --> 00:28:03,339
So what would the problem be?

533
00:28:03,340 --> 00:28:05,023
Well, it would be all
the people who were

534
00:28:05,047 --> 00:28:06,607
asking all these
troublesome questions.

535
00:28:07,480 --> 00:28:09,829
[Judith] Along with
meteorologist Paul Dailey,

536
00:28:09,830 --> 00:28:13,029
no relation to the mayor,
the extreme weather task force

537
00:28:13,030 --> 00:28:16,199
included a detective,
a gerontologist,

538
00:28:16,200 --> 00:28:18,469
and the Deputy Commissioner
of Public Health

539
00:28:18,470 --> 00:28:19,923
for the city of Chicago.

540
00:28:22,410 --> 00:28:24,766
{\an8}The commission was set
up to try to figure out

541
00:28:24,791 --> 00:28:28,336
{\an8}what went wrong,
why so many people were killed

542
00:28:28,350 --> 00:28:31,683
{\an8}in the 1995 heatwave, and what
can they do to correct it.

543
00:28:32,500 --> 00:28:34,959
And they're still using the
numbers that I put together

544
00:28:34,960 --> 00:28:36,245
for the warnings.

545
00:28:37,060 --> 00:28:39,639
So the warning goes out,
the city jumps into their...

546
00:28:39,640 --> 00:28:42,109
they do their thing,
which is contacting people,

547
00:28:42,110 --> 00:28:43,577
making sure everybody's set up,

548
00:28:43,602 --> 00:28:46,475
the cooling centers are set
up, everything like that.

549
00:28:48,110 --> 00:28:50,913
There was a final booklet
put out from the commission.

550
00:28:52,319 --> 00:28:53,732
[Judith] Let's see the cover.

551
00:28:55,390 --> 00:28:59,749
Now, my only question is,
the snowflake and the sun,

552
00:28:59,750 --> 00:29:05,495
doesn't seem as scary
as 739 people dying.

553
00:29:05,790 --> 00:29:09,127
What he wanted to do was try
to cover everything in this.

554
00:29:09,140 --> 00:29:12,772
Whether it's hot in the summer
or heavy snow in the winter.

555
00:29:12,797 --> 00:29:15,047
[Judith] What if you
put a picture of all those

556
00:29:15,050 --> 00:29:16,859
18-wheel refrigerated trucks?

557
00:29:16,860 --> 00:29:17,903
Oh yeah, (laughing)

558
00:29:17,927 --> 00:29:19,637
- they don't...
- Now, that's pretty extreme.

559
00:29:19,679 --> 00:29:21,752
Yeah, they don't wanna
do that though, you know.

560
00:29:22,987 --> 00:29:24,642
They don't wanna
remind people of it.

561
00:29:24,650 --> 00:29:26,119
They want people to remember,

562
00:29:26,120 --> 00:29:29,083
but they don't wanna remind
'em of it, in so many words.

563
00:29:30,170 --> 00:29:33,789
So, remember,
but let's not keep throwing it

564
00:29:33,790 --> 00:29:35,604
in front of their faces.

565
00:29:35,605 --> 00:29:39,059
(slow, somber music)

566
00:29:39,060 --> 00:29:41,468
[Judith] I could see
how a refrigerated truck

567
00:29:41,493 --> 00:29:44,746
filled with poor,
deceased city residents

568
00:29:44,750 --> 00:29:46,519
was not exactly an image Chicago

569
00:29:46,520 --> 00:29:49,663
would want to be reminded
of, or remembered for.

570
00:29:51,170 --> 00:29:54,519
But the sunbeams and
snowflakes effectively reduced

571
00:29:54,520 --> 00:29:59,083
the tragic loss of life in 1995
to an extreme weather event.

572
00:30:00,710 --> 00:30:02,421
When the mayor
organized a commission to

573
00:30:02,445 --> 00:30:04,859
study the heatwave
and release a report,

574
00:30:04,860 --> 00:30:07,829
it said things like,
"every neighbourhood in Chicago

575
00:30:07,830 --> 00:30:09,809
was affected by the heatwave."

576
00:30:09,810 --> 00:30:13,239
It's true, but it's far
more true for some areas

577
00:30:13,240 --> 00:30:15,429
than others,
and that kind of language

578
00:30:15,430 --> 00:30:17,939
just obscures what's
happening in the city.

579
00:30:17,940 --> 00:30:21,089
It makes it impossible
for us to understand

580
00:30:21,090 --> 00:30:22,229
what happened here.

581
00:30:22,230 --> 00:30:25,189
If this were a story
about what cities can do

582
00:30:25,190 --> 00:30:29,479
in an acute emergency to
prevent heatwave deaths,

583
00:30:29,480 --> 00:30:31,409
it'd be an open and shut case.

584
00:30:31,410 --> 00:30:33,059
But it's a much deeper
story than that.

585
00:30:33,060 --> 00:30:36,559
It's a story about these
deeper social fault lines

586
00:30:36,560 --> 00:30:39,559
that make some members
of a city vulnerable

587
00:30:39,560 --> 00:30:42,819
and keep others protected
and blissfully ignorant

588
00:30:42,820 --> 00:30:45,329
about what's happening
to people who live

589
00:30:45,330 --> 00:30:47,131
quite close to them.

590
00:30:47,132 --> 00:30:50,299
(light digital music)

591
00:30:56,910 --> 00:30:59,349
We want to make sure
that all Chicagoans

592
00:30:59,350 --> 00:31:01,860
take appropriate
precautions for dealing with

593
00:31:01,861 --> 00:31:04,711
extreme heat and humidity.

594
00:31:04,712 --> 00:31:07,159
(people chattering)

595
00:31:07,160 --> 00:31:09,779
[Judith] Ever since
1995, when the temperatures

596
00:31:09,780 --> 00:31:13,819
start to rise, the city rolls
out its heat emergency plan,

597
00:31:13,820 --> 00:31:16,979
which over the years has
become a model for other cities

598
00:31:16,980 --> 00:31:20,719
also struggling to adapt
to an ever-warming world.

599
00:31:20,720 --> 00:31:22,659
The plan includes a
multi-million dollar

600
00:31:22,660 --> 00:31:26,479
emergency command center,
reverse-911 calls,

601
00:31:26,480 --> 00:31:28,379
and vigorous public messaging.

602
00:31:28,380 --> 00:31:31,239
We really need each
and every neighbour,

603
00:31:31,240 --> 00:31:34,099
every single person
on every single block,

604
00:31:34,100 --> 00:31:36,439
you know where
these seniors are.

605
00:31:36,440 --> 00:31:40,479
If you cannot reach out to them,
would you please call 3-1-1

606
00:31:40,480 --> 00:31:44,189
and give us their address,
we will go and help them.

607
00:31:44,190 --> 00:31:47,603
You could literally save a
life, so thank you so much.

608
00:31:49,110 --> 00:31:51,710
{\an8}[Judith] What do you think
of the heat emergency plan?

609
00:31:52,666 --> 00:31:56,175
{\an8}I don't know what
I think of that.

610
00:31:59,622 --> 00:32:00,840
(laughing)

611
00:32:00,865 --> 00:32:03,989
We could call it a poverty
emergency plan instead

612
00:32:03,990 --> 00:32:07,433
or a remedying
social evils plan,

613
00:32:08,306 --> 00:32:10,435
I wouldn't mind those things

614
00:32:10,460 --> 00:32:14,283
that got more to the root
causes of the situation.

615
00:32:15,210 --> 00:32:18,989
The underlying dynamic in
those same communities,

616
00:32:18,990 --> 00:32:20,959
things like racism and poverty,

617
00:32:20,960 --> 00:32:24,909
which determined who would live
and die during the heatwave,

618
00:32:24,910 --> 00:32:27,213
of course continue to exist now.

619
00:32:27,909 --> 00:32:29,827
[Judith] Do you think
they're addressing that?

620
00:32:29,828 --> 00:32:33,849
Do I think the city is
addressing the extreme poverty

621
00:32:33,850 --> 00:32:36,399
in communities of
color in Chicago,

622
00:32:36,400 --> 00:32:38,168
is that what you're asking me?

623
00:32:38,169 --> 00:32:39,292
(laughing)

624
00:32:40,372 --> 00:32:41,697
Don't be ridiculous.

625
00:32:44,390 --> 00:32:47,557
(children chattering)

626
00:32:52,330 --> 00:32:55,580
(relaxed upbeat music)

627
00:33:19,424 --> 00:33:22,321
[Man] Gonna stay
out of the water now.

628
00:33:22,322 --> 00:33:23,905
Well that's good.

629
00:33:24,925 --> 00:33:26,386
[Man] Please don't write me up.

630
00:33:29,640 --> 00:33:31,328
[Officer] Please back away.

631
00:33:31,329 --> 00:33:34,279
Everybody back up
off each other.

632
00:33:34,280 --> 00:33:36,665
[Child] Why y'all
wanna turn it off for?

633
00:33:36,666 --> 00:33:38,835
(people chattering)

634
00:33:38,836 --> 00:33:40,795
[Woman] It's low, it's
low, that's what it is.

635
00:33:45,605 --> 00:33:48,855
(light, serious music)

636
00:33:55,956 --> 00:33:58,750
[Judith] A decade after
the heatwave, Eric Klinenberg

637
00:33:58,770 --> 00:34:01,290
was still trying to get people
to learn the core lesson

638
00:34:01,294 --> 00:34:02,667
of that disaster.

639
00:34:03,310 --> 00:34:07,025
{\an8}10 years ago, more than 700
Chicagoans died in the heatwave.

640
00:34:07,050 --> 00:34:09,469
{\an8}But you say that's not
really the entire story.

641
00:34:09,511 --> 00:34:12,825
{\an8}What you wanted to know
were the underlying social,

642
00:34:12,850 --> 00:34:14,175
{\an8}human dimensions to this, right?

643
00:34:14,199 --> 00:34:15,867
{\an8}That's right,
we have this term, a natural

644
00:34:15,891 --> 00:34:17,370
{\an8}disaster that we're
all familiar with.

645
00:34:17,394 --> 00:34:20,105
{\an8}There's certainly nothing
natural about the way they died.

646
00:34:20,105 --> 00:34:23,076
{\an8}What I'm more concerned about
is our collective failure

647
00:34:23,100 --> 00:34:25,999
{\an8}to address the everyday crisis,

648
00:34:26,000 --> 00:34:28,399
{\an8}the disaster in slow
motion if you will.

649
00:34:28,400 --> 00:34:30,209
{\an8}If we look too much
for the scapegoat

650
00:34:30,210 --> 00:34:31,849
{\an8}we'll mislead
ourselves into thinking

651
00:34:31,850 --> 00:34:33,784
{\an8}we're not all kind of
accountable in some way.

652
00:34:34,191 --> 00:34:36,809
And my biggest concern
now is that if we refuse

653
00:34:36,810 --> 00:34:38,859
to come to terms
with this crisis,

654
00:34:38,860 --> 00:34:41,869
we'll doom ourselves
to experience it again.

655
00:34:41,870 --> 00:34:43,469
(deep, somber music)

656
00:34:43,470 --> 00:34:45,059
[Judith] And we did.

657
00:34:45,060 --> 00:34:47,409
Just six weeks after
that interview,

658
00:34:47,410 --> 00:34:50,909
the crisis we refused to
come to terms with in Chicago

659
00:34:50,910 --> 00:34:54,879
repeated itself in New Orleans
and all along the Gulf Coast

660
00:34:54,880 --> 00:34:58,873
while the whole country,
and much of the world, watched.

661
00:35:00,346 --> 00:35:03,545
{\an8}(slow, somber music)

662
00:35:03,570 --> 00:35:06,459
{\an8}Like millions of others,
I spent that Labor Day weekend

663
00:35:06,460 --> 00:35:09,789
{\an8}glued to the television set,
watching whole neighborhoods

664
00:35:09,790 --> 00:35:11,593
{\an8}disappear under water.

665
00:35:15,060 --> 00:35:18,249
One natural disaster,
plus crumbling flood walls

666
00:35:18,250 --> 00:35:20,859
in the city's most
vulnerable neighborhoods,

667
00:35:20,860 --> 00:35:24,687
added up to one big
national revelation.

668
00:35:24,711 --> 00:35:26,091
We're gonna talk about something

669
00:35:26,115 --> 00:35:27,349
else before the show's over too,

670
00:35:27,350 --> 00:35:29,599
and that's the big
elephant in the room,

671
00:35:29,600 --> 00:35:32,729
the race and economic class
of most of the victims,

672
00:35:32,730 --> 00:35:35,689
which the media hasn't
discussed much at all,

673
00:35:35,690 --> 00:35:37,003
but we will a bit later.

674
00:35:39,080 --> 00:35:41,559
[Judith] What had seemed to
me to be a one-time tragedy

675
00:35:41,560 --> 00:35:45,623
in Chicago, all at once
became an appalling trend.

676
00:35:48,050 --> 00:35:50,393
Life and death
determined by zip code.

677
00:35:52,780 --> 00:35:55,439
And this movie,
which started out being about

678
00:35:55,440 --> 00:35:59,599
one specific heat disaster,
turned into something else,

679
00:35:59,600 --> 00:36:01,850
something more complicated
and uncomfortable.

680
00:36:03,260 --> 00:36:06,803
About the impact of generations
worth of racism and denial.

681
00:36:08,910 --> 00:36:13,019
Denial that even after Katrina,
was still going strong.

682
00:36:13,020 --> 00:36:15,869
What's the guesstimate cost
of rebuilding those levies?

683
00:36:15,870 --> 00:36:20,479
The bill is $2.9 billion,
which will give us,

684
00:36:20,480 --> 00:36:23,579
send us a long way to repairing
and upgrading the levies,

685
00:36:23,580 --> 00:36:25,569
making them real category
three protection,

686
00:36:25,570 --> 00:36:28,233
which apparently they weren't,
we learned the hard way.

687
00:36:29,499 --> 00:36:32,582
(slow, somber music)

688
00:36:34,940 --> 00:36:37,289
[Judith] Back in Chicago,
where it was predicted

689
00:36:37,290 --> 00:36:41,199
that by 2050 the weather would
feel more like Baton Rouge,

690
00:36:41,200 --> 00:36:44,759
Mayor Daley inaugurated his
official climate action plan,

691
00:36:44,760 --> 00:36:48,519
starting with a $2.5
million project,

692
00:36:48,520 --> 00:36:50,026
built on top of city hall.

693
00:36:50,590 --> 00:36:53,089
{\an8}So what you'll see
behind me here is actually

694
00:36:53,090 --> 00:36:54,699
{\an8}the green roof on city hall.

695
00:36:54,700 --> 00:36:58,359
{\an8}We're 12 stories above the
city, and as you can tell,

696
00:36:58,360 --> 00:37:00,559
{\an8}it's kinda like a prairie,
you can hear the crickets,

697
00:37:00,560 --> 00:37:02,109
{\an8}you can see the butterflies,

698
00:37:02,110 --> 00:37:03,810
{\an8}there are birds
that live up here.

699
00:37:05,088 --> 00:37:07,839
So what we've done
here, and I'll show you,

700
00:37:07,840 --> 00:37:10,539
we've created an
urban heat island map.

701
00:37:10,540 --> 00:37:12,539
We can see the hot spots

702
00:37:12,540 --> 00:37:14,869
and then we plant
trees in those areas.

703
00:37:14,870 --> 00:37:17,469
'Cause one mature tree has
the air conditioning effect

704
00:37:17,470 --> 00:37:20,889
of 12 room-size
air conditioners.

705
00:37:20,890 --> 00:37:23,479
So these strategies
provide a huge impact

706
00:37:23,480 --> 00:37:27,069
in actually real
cooling of the city.

707
00:37:27,070 --> 00:37:30,237
(light digital music)

708
00:37:40,980 --> 00:37:43,053
We're pretty far
away from city hall.

709
00:37:46,650 --> 00:37:49,050
{\an8}I don't know about any
rooftop gardens out here.

710
00:37:50,489 --> 00:37:53,656
(light digital music)

711
00:37:57,810 --> 00:38:00,269
This is the block
that I lived on

712
00:38:00,270 --> 00:38:03,119
from the time I was
one or two years old

713
00:38:03,120 --> 00:38:04,713
till I was about 14.

714
00:38:05,690 --> 00:38:08,273
Used to be a church
here that burned down.

715
00:38:09,518 --> 00:38:10,903
Used to be a house here.

716
00:38:13,600 --> 00:38:16,593
This house was next
door to where we lived,

717
00:38:17,630 --> 00:38:19,623
and we lived right here.

718
00:38:21,540 --> 00:38:24,687
And this whole block
was full of houses.

719
00:38:27,230 --> 00:38:30,859
I can start to even
see the faces of people

720
00:38:30,860 --> 00:38:32,033
that I grew up with.

721
00:38:33,400 --> 00:38:37,029
Summer day like today, when
I was growing up around here,

722
00:38:37,030 --> 00:38:39,939
would be full of
people out and about.

723
00:38:39,940 --> 00:38:44,123
Kids playing,
adults coming to and from work.

724
00:38:50,410 --> 00:38:53,023
There were all kinds of
things up and down Halsted.

725
00:38:55,130 --> 00:38:57,529
It was this vibrant place to be,

726
00:38:57,530 --> 00:38:59,253
there were two movie theaters.

727
00:39:01,032 --> 00:39:03,959
There was a Sears store,
and in the basement,

728
00:39:03,960 --> 00:39:05,210
Hellmann's grocery store.

729
00:39:06,470 --> 00:39:08,939
I used to get the
list from my mom,

730
00:39:08,940 --> 00:39:11,553
and then I'd walk up here
and get whatever she wanted.

731
00:39:14,120 --> 00:39:17,409
Only downtown had
more economic activity

732
00:39:17,410 --> 00:39:19,983
than the 63rd and
Halsted Street corridor.

733
00:39:21,740 --> 00:39:25,719
It's just been an
incredible 50 plus years

734
00:39:25,720 --> 00:39:28,153
of watching what
happens to a community.

735
00:39:35,370 --> 00:39:37,819
If the heatwave happened
when I was growing up,

736
00:39:37,820 --> 00:39:40,373
I think the outcome would've
been a lot different.

737
00:39:41,860 --> 00:39:45,109
When it got really hot, people
would sleep on the back porch

738
00:39:45,110 --> 00:39:46,293
or sleep in the park.

739
00:39:47,520 --> 00:39:48,993
People felt much safer.

740
00:39:50,050 --> 00:39:51,809
I mean,
imagine going from feeling like

741
00:39:51,810 --> 00:39:53,239
you can go sleep in the park,

742
00:39:53,240 --> 00:39:56,040
to feeling like you can't
even put a fan in your window.

743
00:40:02,030 --> 00:40:03,740
Yeah, and some of
this is privately owned

744
00:40:03,750 --> 00:40:08,750
but a lot of this land is
owned in fact by the city.

745
00:40:10,920 --> 00:40:13,903
Just acres of vacant land.

746
00:40:16,590 --> 00:40:18,013
Acres of potential.

747
00:40:21,702 --> 00:40:24,952
(gentle, solemn music)

748
00:40:46,570 --> 00:40:49,733
Every day I cut
between 25 to 30 lots.

749
00:40:50,720 --> 00:40:54,640
Rats and mice and people can
hide off in these bushes.

750
00:40:55,440 --> 00:40:57,440
{\an8}And this type of
neighbourhood over here,

751
00:40:58,430 --> 00:41:00,483
{\an8}they can break out
and get a hold of you.

752
00:41:04,180 --> 00:41:07,199
The richer the
neighbourhood, the less lots.

753
00:41:07,200 --> 00:41:09,759
Like in Pill Hill,
there's no lots.

754
00:41:09,760 --> 00:41:12,569
Maybe two or three,
but over here,

755
00:41:12,570 --> 00:41:14,533
we got maybe about 2,000 lots.

756
00:41:15,770 --> 00:41:18,539
[Judith] Since 2005,
the city of Chicago

757
00:41:18,540 --> 00:41:21,019
has spent well over $20 million

758
00:41:21,020 --> 00:41:23,943
on maintaining overgrown
and abandoned lots.

759
00:41:27,360 --> 00:41:28,529
I have one question.

760
00:41:28,530 --> 00:41:31,459
What can you imagine them
doing with these empty lots?

761
00:41:31,460 --> 00:41:33,893
Honestly,
around my house they rebuild.

762
00:41:34,920 --> 00:41:36,233
Put Section 8s back up.

763
00:41:37,070 --> 00:41:38,613
But that's the best
I could think of.

764
00:41:39,620 --> 00:41:41,719
All right, but I got to
get back to work, you all.

765
00:41:41,720 --> 00:41:42,820
Y'all have a nice one.

766
00:41:47,822 --> 00:41:49,093
I see you getting out that way.

767
00:41:49,118 --> 00:41:50,155
(laughing)

768
00:41:52,307 --> 00:41:53,350
All right.

769
00:42:02,332 --> 00:42:05,415
(slow, somber music)

770
00:42:08,800 --> 00:42:10,919
[Judith] Orrin told me
that much of the vacant land

771
00:42:10,920 --> 00:42:13,179
on the south and west
sides of the city,

772
00:42:13,180 --> 00:42:15,759
and the slow motion
disaster that's unfolding

773
00:42:15,760 --> 00:42:19,423
in those communities, can be
traced back to another map.

774
00:42:20,320 --> 00:42:23,729
This one, created by the
Federal Housing Administration

775
00:42:23,730 --> 00:42:24,883
in 1940.

776
00:42:25,760 --> 00:42:28,109
The neighborhoods where
black people had settled

777
00:42:28,110 --> 00:42:31,369
were shaded in red,
and declared ineligible

778
00:42:31,370 --> 00:42:34,019
for federally-insured loans.

779
00:42:34,020 --> 00:42:36,349
The only way people
could buy a home

780
00:42:36,350 --> 00:42:39,149
was through a practice
called contract buying,

781
00:42:39,150 --> 00:42:41,249
which was essentially
a high risk,

782
00:42:41,250 --> 00:42:43,351
and usurious installment plan.

783
00:42:43,352 --> 00:42:46,269
(person whistling)

784
00:42:47,360 --> 00:42:49,109
[Orrin] White
speculators bought homes

785
00:42:49,110 --> 00:42:51,469
and then resold them
to black families

786
00:42:51,470 --> 00:42:53,959
for two or three
times their value.

787
00:42:53,960 --> 00:42:56,149
But the black family
didn't own the house

788
00:42:56,150 --> 00:42:57,823
until they fully paid it off.

789
00:42:59,610 --> 00:43:02,539
If I have you in a contract

790
00:43:02,540 --> 00:43:05,989
and things go along and you
get laid off from your job

791
00:43:05,990 --> 00:43:08,079
or you miss a month,
you could do it on one month,

792
00:43:08,080 --> 00:43:10,209
or miss two months,
then you're outta that house,

793
00:43:10,210 --> 00:43:13,479
I evict you, and then I can
recontract that same house

794
00:43:13,480 --> 00:43:14,523
to another family.

795
00:43:18,440 --> 00:43:20,719
[Orrin] Most people had
to work two or three jobs

796
00:43:20,720 --> 00:43:21,903
to make the payments.

797
00:43:23,370 --> 00:43:26,410
Often, they couldn't afford
to maintain the houses

798
00:43:27,652 --> 00:43:31,226
so a lot of those structures
needed to be torn down.

799
00:43:32,970 --> 00:43:35,259
So when the federal
government made it illegal

800
00:43:35,260 --> 00:43:37,909
to give mortgages in
the black communities,

801
00:43:37,910 --> 00:43:39,369
it was a political decision

802
00:43:39,370 --> 00:43:41,327
to disinvest from
those communities.

803
00:43:42,410 --> 00:43:44,539
You have banks
making the decision,

804
00:43:44,540 --> 00:43:46,849
your house isn't worth
replacing the windows,

805
00:43:46,850 --> 00:43:49,468
so we're not gonna give you a
loan to replace your windows.

806
00:43:52,420 --> 00:43:54,219
We're not gonna
give anyone a loan

807
00:43:54,220 --> 00:43:56,923
to buy your house from you,
that's a disinvestment.

808
00:43:58,370 --> 00:44:00,269
We're gonna close these
stores and move them.

809
00:44:00,270 --> 00:44:01,709
And that disinvestment happened

810
00:44:01,710 --> 00:44:03,410
with the changes
in manufacturing.

811
00:44:04,930 --> 00:44:07,803
You don't have steel workers
in Englewood anymore.

812
00:44:09,630 --> 00:44:12,733
You don't have people working at
Campbell Soup factory anymore.

813
00:44:14,230 --> 00:44:16,529
Then what happens is,
your community sinks.

814
00:44:16,530 --> 00:44:17,709
It doesn't happen overnight,

815
00:44:17,710 --> 00:44:22,333
but it happens,
certainly, at a pace.

816
00:44:27,060 --> 00:44:28,870
[Jeremiah] Come on
'round here, Cass.

817
00:44:28,871 --> 00:44:29,871
Come on.

818
00:44:32,903 --> 00:44:34,398
[Colleen] All right, you ready?

819
00:44:34,399 --> 00:44:35,816
[Child] Mm-hmm.

820
00:44:39,280 --> 00:44:41,839
[Judith] Colleen and Jeremiah
Scott were not even born

821
00:44:41,840 --> 00:44:44,589
when the red lines were drawn
around their neighbourhood.

822
00:44:44,590 --> 00:44:46,803
But the repercussions
are all around them.

823
00:44:49,875 --> 00:44:51,806
{\an8}- This is the first one.
- This is the first one.

824
00:44:51,830 --> 00:44:53,164
{\an8}- Right here.
- It's the first one.

825
00:44:53,188 --> 00:44:55,107
{\an8}- That's the second one.
- This is the second one.

826
00:44:55,131 --> 00:44:56,796
{\an8}And then you can just
count 'em as you go.

827
00:44:57,040 --> 00:44:58,592
That's number three.

828
00:45:01,162 --> 00:45:05,029
This is number four, and it's
right next to the school.

829
00:45:05,054 --> 00:45:07,229
If my daughter was
to go to school here,

830
00:45:07,230 --> 00:45:09,922
she would have to walk past
all these abandoned buildings.

831
00:45:09,923 --> 00:45:12,279
- Just to get to school.
- Just to get to the school.

832
00:45:13,675 --> 00:45:15,177
- Wait a minute.
- This one right here.

833
00:45:15,201 --> 00:45:16,486
Now, did you see that?

834
00:45:16,510 --> 00:45:20,679
This building right
here, come on now,

835
00:45:20,680 --> 00:45:23,387
a school surrounded by
abandoned buildings?

836
00:45:25,437 --> 00:45:27,600
That don't make no damn sense.

837
00:45:28,542 --> 00:45:31,625
(slow, somber music)

838
00:45:43,400 --> 00:45:47,783
It's just you don't really
even think about it,

839
00:45:49,002 --> 00:45:52,759
or really comprehend it I guess,

840
00:45:52,760 --> 00:45:56,029
until you have to explain
it to somebody else.

841
00:45:56,030 --> 00:45:59,933
Then it's like,
it's just right in your face.

842
00:46:02,349 --> 00:46:05,141
I was upset about
those right there.

843
00:46:05,159 --> 00:46:08,023
Look at that, boarded up.

844
00:46:09,180 --> 00:46:11,939
All, the school is surrounded.

845
00:46:11,940 --> 00:46:15,029
What do you think about when
you see abandoned property?

846
00:46:15,030 --> 00:46:18,253
It's abandoned,
forgot about, left out.

847
00:46:32,890 --> 00:46:35,419
None of this is rocket science.

848
00:46:35,420 --> 00:46:39,729
We all know what it takes to
make a healthy neighbourhood.

849
00:46:39,730 --> 00:46:42,359
It doesn't require you to
have mansions on the street.

850
00:46:42,360 --> 00:46:44,889
It requires you to have
the grocery stores,

851
00:46:44,890 --> 00:46:47,259
the coffee shops,
the restaurants,

852
00:46:47,260 --> 00:46:49,509
the beauty parlors,
the barbershops.

853
00:46:49,510 --> 00:46:52,669
These are all institutions
that help make streets safe,

854
00:46:52,670 --> 00:46:54,839
they provide places for
people to go for help.

855
00:46:54,840 --> 00:46:57,139
They provide places,
certainly in the wintertime

856
00:46:57,140 --> 00:46:59,899
and summertime,
for cooling and heating.

857
00:46:59,900 --> 00:47:02,983
(slow, somber music)

858
00:47:10,130 --> 00:47:15,156
This map is in a sense,
an exemplar or a model

859
00:47:15,180 --> 00:47:20,099
of all of those issues
coming together in one place.

860
00:47:20,100 --> 00:47:23,553
For example, communities that
have no supermarkets in them.

861
00:47:24,560 --> 00:47:28,769
If you map out vacant
lots, violent crime rates,

862
00:47:28,770 --> 00:47:33,770
was it diabetes, breast
cancer, and on and on and on.

863
00:47:35,390 --> 00:47:40,099
And so, map after map after
map shows the distribution

864
00:47:40,100 --> 00:47:43,403
of the highest mortality and
morbidity throughout the city.

865
00:47:46,530 --> 00:47:49,109
These are things
human beings created.

866
00:47:49,110 --> 00:47:52,709
Let me be really clear,
racism is not a disaster,

867
00:47:52,710 --> 00:47:55,949
it's something that human
beings invented and created

868
00:47:55,950 --> 00:47:57,489
and keep healthy.

869
00:47:57,490 --> 00:48:00,229
Segregation is something
human beings invented,

870
00:48:00,230 --> 00:48:02,953
specific human beings
for specific purposes.

871
00:48:03,820 --> 00:48:05,609
The health inequities that exist

872
00:48:05,610 --> 00:48:07,860
are not accidents,
they're created by people.

873
00:48:11,590 --> 00:48:14,409
[Judith] So the slow
motion disaster in Chicago

874
00:48:14,410 --> 00:48:17,249
was the direct result
of public policies

875
00:48:17,250 --> 00:48:21,573
that effectively divided the
city into haves and have nots.

876
00:48:22,670 --> 00:48:26,349
And it was precisely these
life and death inequalities

877
00:48:26,350 --> 00:48:29,869
that motivated Dr. Whitman
to step down from his post

878
00:48:29,870 --> 00:48:32,789
as the city's chief
epidemiologist,

879
00:48:32,790 --> 00:48:35,529
to lead the Sinai
Urban Health Institute.

880
00:48:35,530 --> 00:48:38,853
His goal, to close the
health disparity gap.

881
00:48:41,200 --> 00:48:43,219
We've done study after
study and published it

882
00:48:43,220 --> 00:48:45,409
in all of our most
prestigious journals,

883
00:48:45,410 --> 00:48:50,099
showing not only that black
people and other poor people

884
00:48:50,100 --> 00:48:53,249
have much worse health,
but in fact that the differences

885
00:48:53,250 --> 00:48:56,379
in health and measures of
health are growing worse

886
00:48:56,380 --> 00:48:59,019
everywhere we look in Chicago.

887
00:48:59,020 --> 00:49:01,087
And, the reason that's
happening is because

888
00:49:01,111 --> 00:49:03,280
the rich are getting richer,
the poor are getting poorer.

889
00:49:03,300 --> 00:49:05,079
And the poor are not
only getting poorer,

890
00:49:05,080 --> 00:49:07,889
but they're getting
sicker as well.

891
00:49:07,890 --> 00:49:11,170
Life expectancy in the loop,
where we're sitting now,

892
00:49:11,580 --> 00:49:14,709
{\an8}is 81 years,
and for black communities

893
00:49:14,734 --> 00:49:17,326
{\an8}throughout Chicago
it was 65 years.

894
00:49:17,649 --> 00:49:21,163
16 years difference
in life expectancy

895
00:49:21,520 --> 00:49:24,399
and you could walk from
one community to the other.

896
00:49:24,400 --> 00:49:26,809
One of the strongest
correlates of bad health

897
00:49:26,810 --> 00:49:28,929
for black people,
it's been shown over and over

898
00:49:28,930 --> 00:49:32,119
in the literature,
is segregation.

899
00:49:32,120 --> 00:49:34,669
We are one of the
most segregated cities

900
00:49:34,670 --> 00:49:35,773
in the United States.

901
00:49:36,610 --> 00:49:40,369
If black people in Chicago
had the same death rates

902
00:49:40,370 --> 00:49:44,649
as white people,
3,200 fewer black people

903
00:49:44,650 --> 00:49:47,369
in just one year
would have died.

904
00:49:47,370 --> 00:49:49,819
What number is 3,200 like?

905
00:49:49,820 --> 00:49:54,307
A very prominent number in
currency in this country.

906
00:49:54,331 --> 00:49:56,708
[Woman] Number of people who
died at the World Trade Center.

907
00:49:56,750 --> 00:49:58,418
Thank you very much,
the number of people

908
00:49:58,442 --> 00:50:00,309
who died on 9/11.

909
00:50:00,310 --> 00:50:04,569
Now just think about
our response to 9/11.

910
00:50:04,570 --> 00:50:08,419
Literally billions,
even trillions of dollars spent,

911
00:50:08,420 --> 00:50:12,379
and yet, here's 3,000
deaths in just one year.

912
00:50:12,380 --> 00:50:15,659
10 years, that's 32,000 deaths,

913
00:50:15,660 --> 00:50:18,616
just from racism in
the city of Chicago.

914
00:50:18,617 --> 00:50:21,950
(plane engines roaring)

915
00:50:36,122 --> 00:50:37,624
[Judith] Watching
the annual air show

916
00:50:37,625 --> 00:50:40,229
along Chicago's
majestic skyline,

917
00:50:40,230 --> 00:50:42,369
celebrating the
military daredevils

918
00:50:42,370 --> 00:50:44,829
who are poised to protect us,

919
00:50:44,830 --> 00:50:47,269
I couldn't help but
think about the disparity

920
00:50:47,270 --> 00:50:48,773
Dr. Whitman had outlined.

921
00:50:50,080 --> 00:50:52,879
3,200 deaths from terrorism

922
00:50:52,880 --> 00:50:54,923
are considered a
national disaster.

923
00:50:56,710 --> 00:51:00,359
And 3,200 deaths from
treatable diseases,

924
00:51:00,360 --> 00:51:02,059
taking place in neighborhoods

925
00:51:02,060 --> 00:51:05,723
just due south and west from
here, are barely considered.

926
00:51:06,670 --> 00:51:10,669
But if those 3,200
preventable deaths in a year

927
00:51:10,670 --> 00:51:13,573
aren't a disaster,
I don't know what is.

928
00:51:16,746 --> 00:51:19,279
And that's when I started
googling disaster,

929
00:51:21,180 --> 00:51:25,869
which led me to Disaster
Master, to disaster prevention.

930
00:51:25,870 --> 00:51:29,159
[Woman] To guarantee good
health, you need clean water.

931
00:51:29,160 --> 00:51:32,899
It filters about a
gallon every five minutes,

932
00:51:32,900 --> 00:51:34,639
which is faster than most.

933
00:51:34,640 --> 00:51:36,829
[Judith] To
disaster preparedness,

934
00:51:36,830 --> 00:51:39,119
which, I soon learned,
is one of our nation's

935
00:51:39,120 --> 00:51:41,399
most dynamic growth industries.

936
00:51:41,400 --> 00:51:43,104
All right, let's start
off my talking about

937
00:51:43,128 --> 00:51:47,914
emergency food,
packaged to last 25 years.

938
00:51:48,240 --> 00:51:51,413
[Judith] And finally,
disaster preparedness Chicago.

939
00:51:52,288 --> 00:51:54,719
(helicopter whirring)

940
00:51:54,720 --> 00:51:56,539
Which is how I learned
that in a suburb

941
00:51:56,540 --> 00:51:59,929
just north of the city, Cook
County was about to show off

942
00:51:59,930 --> 00:52:01,369
its latest innovations

943
00:52:01,370 --> 00:52:04,529
in government-funded
disaster preparedness.

944
00:52:04,530 --> 00:52:06,869
It seemed like a
perfect opportunity

945
00:52:06,870 --> 00:52:08,423
for me to learn the basics.

946
00:52:09,690 --> 00:52:14,325
{\an8}This year, Cook County
will share $47.7 million

947
00:52:14,350 --> 00:52:18,334
{\an8}in Urban Area Security
Initiative, UASI, grants funds.

948
00:52:19,309 --> 00:52:22,351
What you're gonna see is
just a handful of resources

949
00:52:22,380 --> 00:52:24,509
that have been put in place
over the last 10 years,

950
00:52:24,510 --> 00:52:27,159
mainly paid for
through federal grants.

951
00:52:27,160 --> 00:52:28,832
This is the logistics
resupply truck.

952
00:52:28,833 --> 00:52:32,646
It's got all the basics to
support a 500-person force

953
00:52:32,647 --> 00:52:34,409
for three days.

954
00:52:34,410 --> 00:52:36,379
Over here is a mobile
ventilation unit.

955
00:52:36,380 --> 00:52:39,079
We can clear an area
unbelievably efficiently

956
00:52:39,080 --> 00:52:40,539
using these machines.

957
00:52:40,540 --> 00:52:42,885
Mobile warehouse,
seven semitrailers

958
00:52:42,909 --> 00:52:44,699
each with 18,000 items

959
00:52:44,700 --> 00:52:47,239
of things we needed
for the fist 72 hours.

960
00:52:47,240 --> 00:52:49,399
Unified command vehicle.

961
00:52:49,400 --> 00:52:50,819
There are around, I believe,

962
00:52:50,820 --> 00:52:52,670
16 of these in the
state of Illinois.

963
00:52:53,556 --> 00:52:55,975
I started getting
into this whole question

964
00:52:56,000 --> 00:52:59,407
about disaster because
of the 1995 heatwave.

965
00:52:59,866 --> 00:53:02,489
{\an8}A lot of things that
are in place today,

966
00:53:02,490 --> 00:53:05,500
{\an8}were a result of lessons
learned from the 1995 heatwave.

967
00:53:05,880 --> 00:53:08,329
If you remember,
1995 we were keeping bodies

968
00:53:08,330 --> 00:53:11,039
in refrigerated food trucks.

969
00:53:12,120 --> 00:53:14,659
We now have a vehicle
that's specifically made

970
00:53:14,660 --> 00:53:16,129
for this task.

971
00:53:16,130 --> 00:53:18,149
The victim would be
put into this vehicle.

972
00:53:18,150 --> 00:53:20,033
We can hold 27 victims.

973
00:53:20,940 --> 00:53:25,589
We can chill this unit
down to 32 degrees.

974
00:53:25,590 --> 00:53:28,363
[Judith] Which is basically
a refrigerated morgue on wheels?

975
00:53:29,400 --> 00:53:30,998
Yeah, I wouldn't
put that in the press.

976
00:53:30,999 --> 00:53:33,289
I'd flower it up a
little better, but yes.

977
00:53:33,290 --> 00:53:34,790
[Judith] What would you say?

978
00:53:35,630 --> 00:53:38,063
That's a victim
containment system.

979
00:53:39,740 --> 00:53:41,639
[Judith] That victim
containment system

980
00:53:41,640 --> 00:53:44,309
was just one of many
big shiny new trucks

981
00:53:44,310 --> 00:53:46,069
at this county event.

982
00:53:46,070 --> 00:53:49,529
Multiply that by 3,142 counties,

983
00:53:49,530 --> 00:53:52,069
or county equivalents
in the United States

984
00:53:52,070 --> 00:53:54,812
currently gearing up
for future disasters

985
00:53:54,837 --> 00:53:56,814
and you start to
get the picture.

986
00:53:56,823 --> 00:54:00,386
Disaster preparedness is a
very well-resourced endeavor.

987
00:54:03,730 --> 00:54:05,959
But what if it was
possible to re-purpose

988
00:54:05,960 --> 00:54:09,659
this massive infrastructure,
which already operates

989
00:54:09,660 --> 00:54:12,699
on local, regional,
and national levels,

990
00:54:12,700 --> 00:54:14,609
and put it in service
of communities

991
00:54:14,610 --> 00:54:16,983
struck by unnatural disasters?

992
00:54:18,660 --> 00:54:21,769
What if we decided to use
even some of these resources

993
00:54:21,770 --> 00:54:25,463
to keep people from dying
just because they're poor?

994
00:54:28,160 --> 00:54:29,889
That was the question on my mind

995
00:54:29,890 --> 00:54:33,099
when I found out about a
disaster preparedness conference

996
00:54:33,100 --> 00:54:36,619
taking place just two
states, one floodplain,

997
00:54:36,620 --> 00:54:39,739
and one seismic fault
line away from Chicago

998
00:54:39,740 --> 00:54:40,993
in Paducah, Kentucky.

999
00:54:42,600 --> 00:54:44,069
It's all about
disaster preparedness.

1000
00:54:44,070 --> 00:54:46,539
We're talking about ice
storms, a big earthquake

1001
00:54:46,540 --> 00:54:48,329
that could happen here
on the New Madrid fault,

1002
00:54:48,330 --> 00:54:50,529
as well as a slew
of other disasters.

1003
00:54:50,530 --> 00:54:53,109
We've got people from FEMA
here, from the Red Cross,

1004
00:54:53,110 --> 00:54:54,533
from the USGS.

1005
00:54:59,050 --> 00:55:00,064
Judith Helfand.

1006
00:55:01,760 --> 00:55:02,747
- Yeah?
- Yes.

1007
00:55:02,748 --> 00:55:04,242
[Judith] All right. (laughing)

1008
00:55:04,243 --> 00:55:07,689
This is the map of the area
that we were covering, it's...

1009
00:55:07,690 --> 00:55:09,659
Six Midwest states,

1010
00:55:09,660 --> 00:55:12,217
where the New Madrid
earthquake zone is.

1011
00:55:12,232 --> 00:55:13,581
[Judith] But if
it was really bad,

1012
00:55:13,605 --> 00:55:15,106
where would they get
hit on your shirt?

1013
00:55:15,130 --> 00:55:17,629
Oh it'd be like,
the whole Midwest.

1014
00:55:17,654 --> 00:55:20,323
Think about all the bridges
you crossed getting here,

1015
00:55:20,365 --> 00:55:21,908
they'll all be gone.

1016
00:55:21,950 --> 00:55:23,426
If you don't know
what the plan is,

1017
00:55:23,451 --> 00:55:25,243
you may not have a plan.

1018
00:55:25,260 --> 00:55:27,409
I'm not here to
scare you to death.

1019
00:55:27,410 --> 00:55:30,303
I can, but I won't.

1020
00:55:30,799 --> 00:55:33,385
Catastrophic ice,
it's pretty much the worst

1021
00:55:33,410 --> 00:55:34,962
anyone has ever seen.

1022
00:55:34,987 --> 00:55:37,279
Lightning has killed
at least 67 people

1023
00:55:37,299 --> 00:55:38,364
in the United States.

1024
00:55:38,389 --> 00:55:41,056
(light buzzing)

1025
00:55:41,970 --> 00:55:43,819
[Judith] After a day
and a half of lectures,

1026
00:55:43,820 --> 00:55:47,729
keynotes and workshops,
one thing was pretty clear.

1027
00:55:47,730 --> 00:55:49,989
While disasters
threaten everyone,

1028
00:55:49,990 --> 00:55:52,879
disaster preparedness
is a luxury.

1029
00:55:52,880 --> 00:55:54,749
It's for communities
who are stable enough

1030
00:55:54,750 --> 00:55:57,929
in the present to
worry about the future.

1031
00:55:57,930 --> 00:56:00,623
I've got a
preparedness kit with me.

1032
00:56:01,800 --> 00:56:03,779
[Judith] But what if
you can't even conceive of

1033
00:56:03,780 --> 00:56:07,973
a to-go kit because you need
a to-get-through-the-week kit?

1034
00:56:09,270 --> 00:56:12,520
(light, serious music)

1035
00:56:14,711 --> 00:56:17,647
This is the disaster
that I started working on.

1036
00:56:17,672 --> 00:56:19,142
Excessive heat, Chicago.

1037
00:56:19,167 --> 00:56:21,280
Right, it's a heat death map.

1038
00:56:22,890 --> 00:56:24,909
These grays areas
are the poorest,

1039
00:56:24,910 --> 00:56:27,609
sort of neighborhoods
in the city.

1040
00:56:27,610 --> 00:56:29,259
So here's the big question.

1041
00:56:29,260 --> 00:56:31,279
What if we redefine disaster

1042
00:56:31,280 --> 00:56:35,470
as extreme pernicious poverty?

1043
00:56:35,482 --> 00:56:36,524
Mm.

1044
00:56:39,069 --> 00:56:41,088
[Judith] I didn't wanna
make anyone uncomfortable.

1045
00:56:41,112 --> 00:56:42,735
(both laughing nervously)

1046
00:56:42,736 --> 00:56:46,163
But frankly, who's comfortable
talking about race and class?

1047
00:56:47,440 --> 00:56:49,809
And even though I knew I
might be putting some people

1048
00:56:49,810 --> 00:56:51,869
on the spot by
trying to get them

1049
00:56:51,870 --> 00:56:54,173
to re-imagine the
definition of disaster,

1050
00:56:55,260 --> 00:56:56,510
I couldn't resist trying.

1051
00:56:57,470 --> 00:56:59,677
How are you gonna do that?

1052
00:57:02,550 --> 00:57:04,429
What we're looking for,
what we're trying to do

1053
00:57:04,430 --> 00:57:06,259
here today is kinda deal with

1054
00:57:06,260 --> 00:57:08,763
a one-time event type situation.

1055
00:57:10,630 --> 00:57:13,843
Poverty is a cultural
issue because we accept it.

1056
00:57:15,452 --> 00:57:17,319
Pure and simple, we accept it.

1057
00:57:17,320 --> 00:57:19,389
So then, isn't there a
way to just think about

1058
00:57:19,390 --> 00:57:22,275
economic development as
disaster preparedness?

1059
00:57:23,140 --> 00:57:25,099
{\an8}If you're asking me
can emergency management

1060
00:57:25,100 --> 00:57:29,159
{\an8}solve the poverty issues,
I can tell you, no, we can't.

1061
00:57:29,160 --> 00:57:31,400
{\an8}Emergency management cannot
solve those problems.

1062
00:57:31,663 --> 00:57:34,040
'Cause the systems that
we have now are all about,

1063
00:57:35,210 --> 00:57:37,609
we've had a major
disaster, come back in

1064
00:57:37,610 --> 00:57:40,129
and restore that
community to like it was.

1065
00:57:40,130 --> 00:57:43,155
In fact, the FEMA regulations
say, "Like it was."

1066
00:57:43,175 --> 00:57:44,758
[Judith] Buildings
are boarded up, there's

1067
00:57:44,783 --> 00:57:46,701
miles of empty lots,
there's a lot of abandoned...

1068
00:57:46,726 --> 00:57:49,319
I wondered about that
term, like it was.

1069
00:57:49,347 --> 00:57:53,310
Why not better than before,
or prepared for the future?

1070
00:57:54,670 --> 00:57:56,799
So when General
Heltzel invited me to

1071
00:57:56,800 --> 00:57:59,699
a federally-funded,
seven-state, week-long

1072
00:57:59,700 --> 00:58:03,093
disaster preparedness
exercise, I went.

1073
00:58:05,447 --> 00:58:08,619
Oye. (laughing)

1074
00:58:09,886 --> 00:58:12,845
The mission, to be ready
for the massive earthquake

1075
00:58:12,870 --> 00:58:14,999
that's expected to
hit the Midwest,

1076
00:58:15,024 --> 00:58:17,707
and simulate a
coordinated response.

1077
00:58:19,325 --> 00:58:22,298
The last major earthquake, 1812.

1078
00:58:23,730 --> 00:58:25,739
[Man] Kilo Yankee
Four Hotel Charlie.

1079
00:58:25,740 --> 00:58:27,679
K-Y-4-E-O-C.

1080
00:58:27,680 --> 00:58:31,109
Kentucky joint force
headquarters to Kentucky cab,

1081
00:58:31,110 --> 00:58:33,679
Alpha Foxtrot Alpha Four
is here, Whiskey, over.

1082
00:58:33,680 --> 00:58:36,729
We've had a 7.7
Richter scale earthquake.

1083
00:58:36,730 --> 00:58:40,579
You can see the damage
is particularly intensive

1084
00:58:40,580 --> 00:58:42,649
west of the land
between the lakes region

1085
00:58:42,650 --> 00:58:44,799
here in the Jackson
Purchase region.

1086
00:58:44,800 --> 00:58:46,293
The Cavalier City
Fire Department is

1087
00:58:46,317 --> 00:58:47,706
inoperable because
of the earthquake.

1088
00:58:47,707 --> 00:58:51,189
A 7,000 pound release of
chlorine that was near a school.

1089
00:58:51,190 --> 00:58:54,266
[Man Standing] We had
625 casualties, 200 deaths,

1090
00:58:54,267 --> 00:58:57,409
275,000 seeking shelter.

1091
00:58:57,410 --> 00:58:58,766
So we're sending down a million

1092
00:58:58,790 --> 00:59:00,199
MREs and a million
bottles of water.

1093
00:59:00,200 --> 00:59:03,339
Medical supplies,
food, water, tinnage,

1094
00:59:03,340 --> 00:59:05,549
whatever the civilians need.

1095
00:59:05,550 --> 00:59:08,189
We got a notification
from one of our operators

1096
00:59:08,218 --> 00:59:10,228
saying that there was a
lot of damage in Memphis.

1097
00:59:11,847 --> 00:59:12,798
Exercise message.

1098
00:59:14,224 --> 00:59:15,183
Exercise message.

1099
00:59:15,191 --> 00:59:16,139
[Judith] OK.

1100
00:59:16,140 --> 00:59:18,679
I did forget,
I was too busy marveling

1101
00:59:18,680 --> 00:59:20,209
at our nation's ability

1102
00:59:20,210 --> 00:59:22,869
and seemingly
unconditional commitment

1103
00:59:22,870 --> 00:59:26,079
to marshal resources,
rebuild infrastructure,

1104
00:59:26,080 --> 00:59:30,459
save lives, and ensure that
citizens are fed, housed,

1105
00:59:30,460 --> 00:59:32,073
and provided medical care.

1106
00:59:33,560 --> 00:59:37,359
That is, as long as it's in
the wake of a natural disaster.

1107
00:59:37,360 --> 00:59:40,141
(crowd applauding)

1108
00:59:40,166 --> 00:59:41,251
[Man] There you go.

1109
00:59:41,260 --> 00:59:45,535
So, response versus
mitigation versus preparedness.

1110
00:59:45,560 --> 00:59:50,560
Could the recovery come in,
in advance of the disaster?

1111
00:59:51,570 --> 00:59:53,549
And even in advance
of the preparedness,

1112
00:59:53,550 --> 00:59:56,853
because that's, maybe the
recovery is preparedness.

1113
00:59:56,892 --> 00:59:58,810
But,
how are you going to do that

1114
00:59:58,830 --> 01:00:01,123
being without
personnel and funds?

1115
01:00:02,370 --> 01:00:04,743
You don't have no personnel
and you have no funds.

1116
01:00:05,580 --> 01:00:07,793
You only receive that
after the disaster.

1117
01:00:09,130 --> 01:00:12,319
[Judith] My idea wasn't to
send in the National Guard.

1118
01:00:12,320 --> 01:00:15,229
We had more than
10,000 people participate

1119
01:00:15,230 --> 01:00:17,189
in this exercise yesterday.

1120
01:00:17,190 --> 01:00:19,909
[Judith] But with a minor
tweak to the term disaster,

1121
01:00:19,910 --> 01:00:22,739
maybe this well-funded
federal agency

1122
01:00:22,740 --> 01:00:25,119
could invest in the
long-term resilience

1123
01:00:25,120 --> 01:00:26,769
of the vulnerable communities

1124
01:00:26,770 --> 01:00:28,983
they're actually
preparing to rescue.

1125
01:00:30,400 --> 01:00:32,819
The trick ends up being
not what you're chasing here

1126
01:00:32,820 --> 01:00:35,499
by turning that into a
disaster, 'cause it's not...

1127
01:00:35,500 --> 01:00:36,819
[Judith] Well it is a disaster.

1128
01:00:36,820 --> 01:00:40,933
No, it's a crisis and
it's, (laughing)

1129
01:00:40,957 --> 01:00:43,959
it's one of the negative
parts of the real world.

1130
01:00:43,960 --> 01:00:46,829
And where I come from,
nobody gets a free pass.

1131
01:00:46,830 --> 01:00:48,599
You have to take,
you reach down,

1132
01:00:48,600 --> 01:00:51,009
grab yourself by the
bootstraps, and let's go.

1133
01:00:51,010 --> 01:00:53,469
I wish I had a
better answer for ya.

1134
01:00:53,470 --> 01:00:55,599
I will say, you've piqued
my interest, I'm thinking,

1135
01:00:55,600 --> 01:00:57,759
my brain is trying
to connect some dots,

1136
01:00:57,760 --> 01:01:01,449
but I can't get to where
you want to mobilize

1137
01:01:01,450 --> 01:01:04,533
this agency or this
organization in advance.

1138
01:01:06,020 --> 01:01:07,459
It just doesn't work that way.

1139
01:01:07,460 --> 01:01:10,299
Now if you changed the laws,
and we get people to agree

1140
01:01:10,300 --> 01:01:12,553
that we wanna change
the world we live in,

1141
01:01:13,710 --> 01:01:15,509
kinda the holy grail, right?

1142
01:01:15,510 --> 01:01:17,823
Go for it, I'm right behind you.

1143
01:01:19,728 --> 01:01:22,311
(gentle music)

1144
01:01:23,850 --> 01:01:26,749
[Judith] I left Frankfurt,
Kentucky and headed south

1145
01:01:26,750 --> 01:01:29,169
towards the Tennessee
border to get a good look

1146
01:01:29,170 --> 01:01:30,620
at the New Madrid fault line.

1147
01:01:31,950 --> 01:01:34,369
A disaster in waiting
that might not,

1148
01:01:34,370 --> 01:01:36,479
despite all of this preparation,

1149
01:01:36,480 --> 01:01:38,203
even happen in our lifetime.

1150
01:01:39,230 --> 01:01:41,803
But of course,
I couldn't see anything.

1151
01:01:44,640 --> 01:01:46,259
How did we get here?

1152
01:01:46,260 --> 01:01:49,689
To a place where so many people
believe that if you're poor,

1153
01:01:49,690 --> 01:01:52,059
it's because you
didn't pull hard enough

1154
01:01:52,060 --> 01:01:53,453
on your own bootstraps.

1155
01:01:59,910 --> 01:02:01,179
{\an8}So what you're struggling with

1156
01:02:01,180 --> 01:02:03,929
{\an8}is why are we
spending so much money

1157
01:02:03,930 --> 01:02:06,689
{\an8}on these low-probability events

1158
01:02:07,240 --> 01:02:10,219
when we have people dying
like flies all around us?

1159
01:02:10,220 --> 01:02:12,999
And that money could
be helping people now.

1160
01:02:13,000 --> 01:02:14,169
- Is that it?
- Yes.

1161
01:02:14,170 --> 01:02:15,002
Yeah.

1162
01:02:15,003 --> 01:02:17,533
Well, right.

1163
01:02:18,783 --> 01:02:24,831
Yeah, you're right to see
that as an unreasonable

1164
01:02:24,840 --> 01:02:27,269
allocation of
resources, 'cause it is.

1165
01:02:27,270 --> 01:02:29,669
In order to get help from
the federal government,

1166
01:02:29,670 --> 01:02:32,639
you typically have
to make some showing

1167
01:02:32,640 --> 01:02:34,579
that whatever it is
that has happened to you

1168
01:02:34,580 --> 01:02:35,699
is not your fault.

1169
01:02:35,700 --> 01:02:40,639
And, as a result of that,
we pay a lot of attention

1170
01:02:40,640 --> 01:02:43,499
in this country to how
people came to be in need

1171
01:02:43,500 --> 01:02:44,909
in the first place.

1172
01:02:44,910 --> 01:02:48,529
And their claims are
discredited in our system

1173
01:02:48,530 --> 01:02:50,859
by the sense that
they could have

1174
01:02:50,860 --> 01:02:53,778
or should have
helped themselves.

1175
01:02:54,861 --> 01:02:57,864
But that is our history
and our tradition.

1176
01:02:57,866 --> 01:03:00,949
(slow, somber music)

1177
01:03:08,537 --> 01:03:09,545
(people chattering)

1178
01:03:09,546 --> 01:03:11,562
[Woman] Number three.

1179
01:03:11,586 --> 01:03:12,963
[Man] What happened
to number one?

1180
01:03:12,964 --> 01:03:14,422
[Woman] Number
one is right here.

1181
01:03:14,447 --> 01:03:15,361
[Man] Open.

1182
01:03:16,580 --> 01:03:18,299
{\an8}Number one come right on in.

1183
01:03:18,343 --> 01:03:19,335
{\an8}- Two.
- Hold on to that.

1184
01:03:19,570 --> 01:03:21,949
[Judith] Watching this
group of Englewood elders

1185
01:03:21,950 --> 01:03:25,509
line up at 7:00 a.m. to get
help with their energy bills

1186
01:03:25,510 --> 01:03:27,439
made our history
and our tradition

1187
01:03:27,440 --> 01:03:30,563
seem not only absurd to
me, but criminal.

1188
01:03:33,349 --> 01:03:35,182
Sir, take your time.

1189
01:03:37,670 --> 01:03:39,296
[Judith] Every year, a one-time

1190
01:03:39,320 --> 01:03:42,257
federally-funded subsidy of $150

1191
01:03:42,281 --> 01:03:44,367
is available for
those who qualify.

1192
01:03:45,300 --> 01:03:47,854
As long as the money
doesn't run out.

1193
01:03:47,855 --> 01:03:48,855
Number 10.

1194
01:03:52,836 --> 01:03:54,658
Good morning everyone.

1195
01:03:56,256 --> 01:04:01,178
{\an8}You know you need your
light bill, your gas bill,

1196
01:04:01,190 --> 01:04:02,408
{\an8}and they have to be current.

1197
01:04:02,920 --> 01:04:06,699
We need your income,
social security card

1198
01:04:06,700 --> 01:04:09,159
for everyone that's
in the household.

1199
01:04:09,160 --> 01:04:12,323
A current rent
receipt if you rent.

1200
01:04:13,350 --> 01:04:16,169
So you can take
those documents out,

1201
01:04:16,170 --> 01:04:17,773
hold 'em in your hand now.

1202
01:04:20,146 --> 01:04:24,188
{\an8}They had a cooling program
and then they ran out of money.

1203
01:04:24,213 --> 01:04:28,629
{\an8}So that cooling program
lasted about two or three days.

1204
01:04:28,630 --> 01:04:31,253
{\an8}Many people did not
get help who needed it.

1205
01:04:32,450 --> 01:04:33,829
The money wasn't there.

1206
01:04:33,830 --> 01:04:36,492
It wasn't that they did not
apply, the money was not there.

1207
01:04:36,493 --> 01:04:38,859
See, that money comes from
the federal government

1208
01:04:38,860 --> 01:04:41,059
to the state, then to the city.

1209
01:04:41,060 --> 01:04:43,969
But they're more than a hundred
intake sites in the city

1210
01:04:43,970 --> 01:04:45,509
like ours here.

1211
01:04:45,510 --> 01:04:49,429
So there's hundreds of people
applying at the same time.

1212
01:04:49,430 --> 01:04:51,163
So that money just
goes like that.

1213
01:04:55,232 --> 01:04:56,733
- What was it, '85?
- '95.

1214
01:05:00,952 --> 01:05:03,119
[Judith] How old was he?

1215
01:05:04,170 --> 01:05:07,153
He was 58, he was 58.

1216
01:05:07,178 --> 01:05:08,522
[Judith] I'm sorry.

1217
01:05:08,523 --> 01:05:09,356
Mm-hmm.

1218
01:05:10,999 --> 01:05:13,652
(people chattering)

1219
01:05:13,653 --> 01:05:15,074
[Woman] 17.

1220
01:05:15,075 --> 01:05:16,158
[Woman] 17.

1221
01:05:17,104 --> 01:05:18,476
Do you own or rent?

1222
01:05:18,477 --> 01:05:19,418
[Client] Own.

1223
01:05:19,419 --> 01:05:21,202
Own, OK.

1224
01:05:21,203 --> 01:05:24,203
(people chattering)

1225
01:05:31,180 --> 01:05:33,099
You can tell a lot
about what we care about

1226
01:05:33,100 --> 01:05:34,750
by where we're
putting our money.

1227
01:05:36,460 --> 01:05:40,599
People want those
resources to be at standby

1228
01:05:40,600 --> 01:05:45,600
in case they are experiencing
an earthquake or a fire

1229
01:05:45,950 --> 01:05:48,349
or a flood or hurricane.

1230
01:05:48,350 --> 01:05:50,929
Because they can imagine
that happening to them.

1231
01:05:50,930 --> 01:05:54,079
A white person cannot
easily imagine what it is

1232
01:05:54,080 --> 01:05:57,919
to be a person of
color in a community

1233
01:05:57,920 --> 01:06:00,863
that doesn't have access to
good food or medical care.

1234
01:06:05,555 --> 01:06:06,848
{\an8}Have you ever had a mammogram?

1235
01:06:06,872 --> 01:06:07,705
{\an8}No, I have not.

1236
01:06:07,721 --> 01:06:09,431
{\an8}Are you interested
in having a mammogram?

1237
01:06:09,439 --> 01:06:10,506
{\an8}No, I'm not.

1238
01:06:10,515 --> 01:06:13,057
{\an8}OK, is there any specific
reason, you mind me asking?

1239
01:06:13,518 --> 01:06:18,565
No, I just don't wanna have one.

1240
01:06:18,590 --> 01:06:21,809
I just, I got plenty
going in my life and...

1241
01:06:21,810 --> 01:06:23,880
- [Oreletta] Too much already.
- Yeah, that's enough.

1242
01:06:23,904 --> 01:06:26,048
OK, well do you mind if
I send you a reminder just to...

1243
01:06:26,072 --> 01:06:27,049
A reminder is fine.

1244
01:06:27,073 --> 01:06:28,617
...keep on encouraging
you to get one?

1245
01:06:28,640 --> 01:06:29,832
- Yes, no problem.
- OK.

1246
01:06:29,833 --> 01:06:32,299
[Judith] What I
came to learn is this.

1247
01:06:32,300 --> 01:06:35,449
In the absence of any
significant investment,

1248
01:06:35,450 --> 01:06:38,479
communities that are most
vulnerable every day,

1249
01:06:38,480 --> 01:06:40,939
are forced to rely on
their own ingenuity

1250
01:06:40,940 --> 01:06:43,009
and very meager resources

1251
01:06:43,010 --> 01:06:47,299
to respond to the crisis that
most everyone else ignores.

1252
01:06:47,300 --> 01:06:48,749
Like the community
health workers

1253
01:06:48,750 --> 01:06:51,059
from the Sinai Urban
Health Institute,

1254
01:06:51,060 --> 01:06:53,049
who spend their days
reaching out to women

1255
01:06:53,050 --> 01:06:54,979
who suffer breast cancer deaths

1256
01:06:54,980 --> 01:06:58,349
at a rate 40% higher
than the white women

1257
01:06:58,350 --> 01:06:59,653
on the other side of town.

1258
01:07:00,069 --> 01:07:01,289
{\an8}I'm uninsured.

1259
01:07:01,290 --> 01:07:02,999
{\an8}OK, you don't have
to worry about that.

1260
01:07:03,000 --> 01:07:05,122
{\an8}We have a state-funded program
so we pay for the cost.

1261
01:07:05,690 --> 01:07:07,649
Once we enter you into
the computer system

1262
01:07:07,650 --> 01:07:09,784
then I get you in,
probably about a week's time.

1263
01:07:09,785 --> 01:07:10,783
OK.

1264
01:07:10,784 --> 01:07:13,683
Insurance, any
type, you got, put no.

1265
01:07:15,030 --> 01:07:18,349
Check there, and ah.

1266
01:07:18,350 --> 01:07:19,929
When the last time
you had a mammogram?

1267
01:07:19,930 --> 01:07:20,762
Probably last year.

1268
01:07:20,763 --> 01:07:22,569
Last year,
are you set for this year?

1269
01:07:22,570 --> 01:07:23,551
I need another one.

1270
01:07:23,552 --> 01:07:24,649
You need another, OK.

1271
01:07:24,650 --> 01:07:26,809
Every day,
I go into an exam room

1272
01:07:26,810 --> 01:07:29,679
and I work with people that
have medical conditions,

1273
01:07:29,680 --> 01:07:32,109
much of which could've
been prevented

1274
01:07:32,110 --> 01:07:35,079
or at least made much
easier to deal with

1275
01:07:35,080 --> 01:07:37,409
if they had the
structural conditions

1276
01:07:37,410 --> 01:07:38,710
they need to stay healthy.

1277
01:07:39,646 --> 01:07:40,942
People think that poor people

1278
01:07:40,981 --> 01:07:43,275
don't know how to eat healthy
or don't wanna eat healthy.

1279
01:07:43,650 --> 01:07:45,025
{\an8}A lot of it is
more about access.

1280
01:07:45,050 --> 01:07:46,176
{\an8}They don't have access to it.

1281
01:07:46,201 --> 01:07:47,761
{\an8}It's difficult for
them to get to places.

1282
01:07:48,363 --> 01:07:49,643
The things that
they have in their

1283
01:07:49,685 --> 01:07:51,124
neighbourhood are not healthy.

1284
01:07:51,149 --> 01:07:52,049
[Woman] We have food.

1285
01:07:52,050 --> 01:07:56,392
So that's our vision,
bring the food to the people.

1286
01:07:56,393 --> 01:07:59,643
(gentle, bouncy music)

1287
01:08:13,999 --> 01:08:15,402
[Boy] I'll taste salad.

1288
01:08:15,403 --> 01:08:18,035
You'll taste salad,
OK, salad is good,

1289
01:08:18,059 --> 01:08:19,436
it's a good start,
what about like.

1290
01:08:19,437 --> 01:08:21,969
[Judith] Fresh Moves is
a decommissioned city bus

1291
01:08:21,970 --> 01:08:25,509
turned mobile market, bringing
affordable fresh produce

1292
01:08:25,510 --> 01:08:28,079
to the neighborhoods
that are often referred to

1293
01:08:28,080 --> 01:08:29,183
as food deserts.

1294
01:08:29,863 --> 01:08:31,072
Have you ever tried a pear?

1295
01:08:31,073 --> 01:08:32,573
Do you wanna try one?

1296
01:08:32,574 --> 01:08:34,237
What if buy you an
apple or a pear?

1297
01:08:34,238 --> 01:08:35,070
Apple.

1298
01:08:35,071 --> 01:08:37,171
You wanna try, OK,
which one you want?

1299
01:08:38,426 --> 01:08:40,269
As a matter of fact, I'm,

1300
01:08:40,270 --> 01:08:41,643
is that the one you want, OK.

1301
01:08:41,644 --> 01:08:43,354
You got to wait till
they check out up there.

1302
01:08:43,378 --> 01:08:46,049
Just hold on to it.
That's a big thing.

1303
01:08:46,050 --> 01:08:47,634
[Sheelah] Yeah,
you gonna eat it all.

1304
01:08:49,674 --> 01:08:51,258
[Woman] Come on,
try it, just try it.

1305
01:08:51,281 --> 01:08:52,362
Come on.

1306
01:08:52,385 --> 01:08:53,457
- Please.
- Do it, do it,

1307
01:08:53,481 --> 01:08:56,056
do it, do it, do it.
(woman laughing)

1308
01:08:56,073 --> 01:08:56,905
I'm scared.

1309
01:08:56,906 --> 01:08:59,847
- What you scared of?
- What you, you scared?

1310
01:08:59,848 --> 01:09:02,681
(apple crunching)

1311
01:09:07,051 --> 01:09:09,244
- Yes, nice and juicy.
- Is it good?

1312
01:09:09,245 --> 01:09:10,677
And juicy!

1313
01:09:10,678 --> 01:09:11,510
[Woman] It's juicy!

1314
01:09:11,511 --> 01:09:12,928
It's juicy, yeah!

1315
01:09:13,774 --> 01:09:16,542
(women clapping)

1316
01:09:16,543 --> 01:09:19,265
You know you liked it.
(laughing)

1317
01:09:19,266 --> 01:09:20,783
Yeah!

1318
01:09:20,784 --> 01:09:21,616
You like it?

1319
01:09:21,617 --> 01:09:22,450
Yeah!

1320
01:09:25,458 --> 01:09:28,458
[Woman] Yes,
I love it, I love it.

1321
01:09:30,310 --> 01:09:32,309
[Judith] So even in one
of the wealthiest cities

1322
01:09:32,310 --> 01:09:35,863
in the nation, access to
apples is not guaranteed.

1323
01:09:39,780 --> 01:09:42,019
Which is a problem Orrin
Williams was tackling

1324
01:09:42,020 --> 01:09:45,539
with Chicago's first-ever
urban organic farm,

1325
01:09:45,540 --> 01:09:46,559
Growing Home.

1326
01:09:47,587 --> 01:09:50,837
{\an8}(light, serious music)

1327
01:09:54,410 --> 01:09:57,076
Someone said to me, "It's
easier to buy a gun around here

1328
01:09:57,077 --> 01:09:58,267
than a tomato."

1329
01:09:59,970 --> 01:10:04,453
I wouldn't say that,
although it's true.

1330
01:10:05,580 --> 01:10:09,279
Standing where we are
now, let me see,

1331
01:10:09,280 --> 01:10:11,083
where would you go get a tomato?

1332
01:10:12,040 --> 01:10:12,873
OK?

1333
01:10:14,150 --> 01:10:16,363
I have to think about
that long and hard.

1334
01:10:20,265 --> 01:10:22,118
You got to go to
59th and Kensey.

1335
01:10:22,142 --> 01:10:23,184
[Judith] Is that far?

1336
01:10:23,185 --> 01:10:26,250
Which is mile and a half.

1337
01:10:27,730 --> 01:10:31,563
69th is another mile
and a half in Ashland.

1338
01:10:34,710 --> 01:10:38,713
Going north to 47th Street,
another mile and a half.

1339
01:10:42,470 --> 01:10:45,579
Some people describe
communities on the south side

1340
01:10:45,580 --> 01:10:49,329
as food deserts, not a term
we particularly care for

1341
01:10:49,330 --> 01:10:51,877
but the problem
in our communities

1342
01:10:51,901 --> 01:10:55,208
is there's food there
but it's low quality.

1343
01:10:55,209 --> 01:10:58,542
(cash register beeping)

1344
01:11:01,875 --> 01:11:05,105
[Man] Give me another
thing of chips, up there.

1345
01:11:05,106 --> 01:11:06,465
[Woman] See, and I be saying,

1346
01:11:06,466 --> 01:11:08,039
he's brought us
food all our lives.

1347
01:11:08,063 --> 01:11:09,189
[Woman] Do what I tell you.

1348
01:11:09,205 --> 01:11:10,503
- OK then.
- Look at that.

1349
01:11:10,504 --> 01:11:12,155
[Woman] Did I dare to call you

1350
01:11:12,156 --> 01:11:14,113
and told you to come
see what I want?

1351
01:11:14,114 --> 01:11:16,148
[Man] Hey, hey, hey,
hey, what y'all doing?

1352
01:11:16,149 --> 01:11:17,609
Uh-uh. (men laughing)

1353
01:11:17,610 --> 01:11:20,455
Hey, the vegetable man is here.

1354
01:11:20,456 --> 01:11:22,176
[Woman Seated]
How much is those?

1355
01:11:22,177 --> 01:11:24,039
These just 75 cent a bunch.

1356
01:11:24,040 --> 01:11:25,101
OK.

1357
01:11:25,102 --> 01:11:26,483
Come on lady,
I don't want no old

1358
01:11:26,484 --> 01:11:28,789
withered up greens now, come on.

1359
01:11:28,790 --> 01:11:32,089
[Judith] Growing Home is
responding to multiple problems.

1360
01:11:32,090 --> 01:11:35,489
Not just the lack of fresh,
affordable vegetables,

1361
01:11:35,490 --> 01:11:37,609
and the disease
that goes with it,

1362
01:11:37,610 --> 01:11:41,289
but job training for people
who've served time in prison,

1363
01:11:41,290 --> 01:11:44,049
and the isolation of seniors
who often feel at risk

1364
01:11:44,050 --> 01:11:45,503
in their own communities.

1365
01:11:47,070 --> 01:11:50,139
On top of that,
the gardens are beautiful

1366
01:11:50,140 --> 01:11:53,049
and can even help cool
the neighbourhood,

1367
01:11:53,050 --> 01:11:54,579
all of which makes a difference

1368
01:11:54,580 --> 01:11:57,239
in the midst of any disaster.

1369
01:11:57,240 --> 01:12:00,099
Would you call this a
heat emergency plan?

1370
01:12:00,100 --> 01:12:03,069
No, I think the
term human emergency

1371
01:12:03,070 --> 01:12:04,923
is the most appropriate term.

1372
01:12:05,960 --> 01:12:08,460
[Judith] I left Orrin,
feeling somewhat hopeful.

1373
01:12:10,280 --> 01:12:13,209
And then, about two miles away,

1374
01:12:13,210 --> 01:12:15,019
on the other side of Englewood,

1375
01:12:15,020 --> 01:12:17,182
I saw this disaster unfolding.

1376
01:12:17,183 --> 01:12:19,933
(people yelling)

1377
01:12:21,922 --> 01:12:24,888
Come on, where y'all going?

1378
01:12:24,889 --> 01:12:28,031
[Fireman] Anybody that
can hear me and can walk,

1379
01:12:28,032 --> 01:12:29,365
walk towards me.

1380
01:12:30,789 --> 01:12:34,206
[Man] All right,
get us out of the way.

1381
01:12:35,025 --> 01:12:36,735
[Fireman] Please go
over to the yellow tarp

1382
01:12:36,759 --> 01:12:38,177
if you don't have
a green steno card?

1383
01:12:38,201 --> 01:12:40,030
- No, we don't.
- Go to that yellow tarp.

1384
01:12:40,036 --> 01:12:42,689
You can find a fireman here,
down in between the engines,

1385
01:12:42,690 --> 01:12:43,863
over to the ambulance.

1386
01:12:46,244 --> 01:12:47,913
[Fireman] I got number 26.

1387
01:12:50,320 --> 01:12:52,725
Abrasions left arm, left hand.

1388
01:12:52,726 --> 01:12:56,239
(people chattering)

1389
01:12:56,240 --> 01:12:58,083
Puncture wound to
the right abdomen.

1390
01:13:02,850 --> 01:13:05,409
Chicago firefighters have
been working around the clock

1391
01:13:05,410 --> 01:13:08,119
preparing for a massive tornado.

1392
01:13:08,120 --> 01:13:10,839
It's a drill to
simulate a tornado,

1393
01:13:10,840 --> 01:13:13,053
wiping out part
of the south side.

1394
01:13:16,810 --> 01:13:19,029
[Tammy] This rare training
drill was made possible

1395
01:13:19,030 --> 01:13:22,713
by a $250,000 Homeland
Security grant.

1396
01:13:23,740 --> 01:13:25,289
{\an8}They're drilling in Englewood,

1397
01:13:25,290 --> 01:13:26,960
{\an8}which has become
rather notorious

1398
01:13:26,961 --> 01:13:29,180
{\an8}as one of the most
dangerous neighborhoods

1399
01:13:29,204 --> 01:13:30,122
{\an8}in the city of Chicago.

1400
01:13:30,146 --> 01:13:33,199
{\an8}And this is actually a good
opportunity for them to show off

1401
01:13:33,200 --> 01:13:35,728
{\an8}how great they are
at strategic planning

1402
01:13:35,752 --> 01:13:37,230
{\an8}in the event of a disaster.

1403
01:13:37,254 --> 01:13:39,326
{\an8}So that's taking place today.
Kinda neat, right guys?

1404
01:13:39,327 --> 01:13:40,689
{\an8}- That is.
- Oh yeah, it really is.

1405
01:13:40,690 --> 01:13:42,158
{\an8}- Thank you, Tammy.
- All right.

1406
01:13:42,886 --> 01:13:45,868
(slow, somber music)

1407
01:13:45,869 --> 01:13:47,999
[Judith] I couldn't
believe what I was watching.

1408
01:13:48,000 --> 01:13:50,999
A lavishly-funded disaster drill

1409
01:13:51,000 --> 01:13:55,059
taking place at a former
public housing complex,

1410
01:13:55,060 --> 01:13:58,483
literally on top of the
disaster in slow motion.

1411
01:14:01,613 --> 01:14:03,009
[Fireman] All right, all right,

1412
01:14:03,010 --> 01:14:05,495
they're gonna put some
straps on you, OK?

1413
01:14:05,496 --> 01:14:06,413
Here, OK?

1414
01:14:09,660 --> 01:14:11,419
[Judith] I'm not
suggesting we do away with

1415
01:14:11,420 --> 01:14:13,999
disaster preparedness training.

1416
01:14:14,000 --> 01:14:17,399
No one wants EMTs and
firefighters googling,

1417
01:14:17,400 --> 01:14:20,039
how to use the jaws of life,

1418
01:14:20,040 --> 01:14:22,373
while trying to cut
someone out of a car.

1419
01:14:24,290 --> 01:14:27,599
But I looked up deaths
from tornadoes in Chicago,

1420
01:14:27,600 --> 01:14:30,323
and the average is
about one person a year.

1421
01:14:32,240 --> 01:14:35,329
While some 3,000 people
die each and every year

1422
01:14:35,330 --> 01:14:38,479
from preventable
diseases within about

1423
01:14:38,480 --> 01:14:40,393
a five-mile radius
of this drill.

1424
01:14:45,213 --> 01:14:47,259
It had never been
more obvious to me

1425
01:14:47,260 --> 01:14:52,260
how deeply flawed and immoral
our national priorities are.

1426
01:14:52,632 --> 01:14:55,715
(slow, somber music)

1427
01:15:00,690 --> 01:15:03,669
I started this film
questioning our very definition

1428
01:15:03,670 --> 01:15:06,839
of disaster, and I'm ending it

1429
01:15:06,840 --> 01:15:10,159
convinced that if we'd just
enlarge that definition,

1430
01:15:10,160 --> 01:15:12,889
we could address the
underlying conditions

1431
01:15:12,890 --> 01:15:15,713
that are literally
killing people every day.

1432
01:15:18,100 --> 01:15:20,869
Because the word disaster
typically moves people

1433
01:15:20,870 --> 01:15:24,969
to respond quickly,
with courage, compassion,

1434
01:15:24,970 --> 01:15:26,533
and cold, hard cash.

1435
01:15:29,470 --> 01:15:32,020
And if we responded to
slow motion disaster

1436
01:15:33,160 --> 01:15:35,453
the way we do a
sudden natural one,

1437
01:15:36,800 --> 01:15:40,719
the odds of saving a life,
just in the city of Chicago,

1438
01:15:40,720 --> 01:15:45,403
would be at least 3,200 to
one, no matter the weather.

1439
01:15:46,404 --> 01:15:48,987
(somber music)

1440
01:15:51,180 --> 01:15:53,593
So what's the best way
to prepare for disaster?

1441
01:15:54,600 --> 01:15:56,693
Or for that matter,
recover from one?

1442
01:16:00,050 --> 01:16:01,900
I guess it depends
on where you live.

1443
01:16:02,983 --> 01:16:06,486
And the kind of world
we wanna live in.

1444
01:16:06,501 --> 01:16:11,501
(gentle, somber music)
(fireworks popping)

1445
01:16:25,552 --> 01:16:27,802
(clicking)

1446
01:16:31,621 --> 01:16:34,871
(relaxed techno music)

1447
01:18:41,373 --> 01:18:44,706
(relaxed serious music)

1448
01:20:13,674 --> 01:20:16,924
(gentle, solemn music)

1449
01:20:36,381 --> 01:20:40,048
(relaxed techno music)

1450
01:21:31,855 --> 01:21:36,855
(light tonal music) (swishing)

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