A hazardous mix of solid and liquid waste is flushed into the sewer every day. With literally billions of gallons of water passing through municipal sewer systems - composed of unknown quantities of chemicals, solvents, heavy metals, human waste, and food - the question becomes: where does it all go? And what effect does that have on us?
From ancient times, countries have chosen the sewer as the waste management system of choice, flushing untold amounts of household and industrial contaminants that inevitably resurface in the food chain; fish swim through rivers choked with waste water, while processed sewage sludge is spread on farmland as a fertilizer.
With CRAPSHOOT, filmmaker Jeff McKay takes viewers on an eye-opening journey around the world to explore different approaches to sewage, starting at the 2,500 year old Cloaca Maxima in Rome, where the modern concept of sewers began. Filmed in Italy, India, Sweden, the United States and Canada, this bold documentary questions whether the sewer is alleviating or compounding our waste problem. While scientists warn of links between sewage practices and potential health risks, our fundamental attitudes toward waste are being challenged by activists, engineers, and concerned citizens alike. Does our need to dispose of waste take precedence over public health and safety? What are the alternatives?
'***1/2... Despite the lighthearted title, this...production takes a serious look at the question of what happens when we flush... The visuals here are occasionally spectacular... Thought-provoking, scary as all-get-out, and engrossing, Crapshoot is a must for environmental studies collections and highly recommended in general.' Video Librarian
'Out of sight and out of mind, most people will say, however there exist some fairly significant questions regarding our massive investments and miscalculations in waste management. Well, Canadian director Jeff McKay has tackled the dirty issue and formed it into a stunningly disgusting and thought-provoking documentary.' Creative Generalist
'One of the very best films I've screened this year is a thoughtful NFB doc about what happens to human waste and the dilemma ridding ourselves of it is creating...Yeah it's disgusting alright, and it's also a harrowing look at yet another environmental travesty that's unfolding everywhere - not just third world spots...' Matthew Hays, (Montreal) Mirror
'The haunting message of the film is that nothing flushed down the toilet is ever just gone. The problem caused by using water to move our waste cannot be solved by technology. This will take a major social change...Crapshoot could generate a healthy discussion. The film would have great applicability in courses with environmental units, but it could also be used in Sociology, Law, Civics, Science, Ethics or Technology.' Frank Loreto, CM Magazine
'[A] strongly recommended addition to school, college, and community library collections.' The Midwest Book Review
'The City of Moncton was gearing itself to promote the use of 'bio-solids' with its new plant. I think [Crapshoot] showed a lot of people that the use of bio-solids has serious long-term effects on the environment and people's health...a few people who saw the film wrote editorials in the local paper and that stirred up interest and questions from the local community. This might not have happened if we had not seen the film.' Eric Arseneau, Coordinator of the Petitcodiac Watershed Monitoring Group
'The film had a really powerful impact on me...It wasn't until I saw [Crapshoot] that I fully grasped that a toilet doesn't have to be designed to use water. Nor does that whole system of underground sewage pipes even have to exist. There are and can be options.' Leslie Forrester, resident of the small community of Stirling, Ontario Canada
'Crapshoot is an informative and occasionally humorous look at the pros and cons of the sewer system. A great film for anyone who wants to know about one of the world's most taboo subjects.' Greenmuze.com
McKay, Jeff (film director)
McKay, Jeff (editor of moving image work)
McKay, Jeff (composer)
DeGraves, Ruth (narrator)
DeGraves, Ruth (screenwriter)
MacDonald, Joe (film producer)
Camera, Linda Danchak, Jonathon Bland; original music Peter Bundy, Jeff McKay.
Distributor subjectsAgriculture; Canadian Studies; Environment; Fisheries; Geography; Health; India; Marine Biology; Oceans and Coasts; Pollution; Rivers; Rivers; Science, Technology, Society; Technology; Toxic Chemicals; Urban and Regional Planning; Water
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00:00:26.070 --> 00:00:33.070
Cloacina, goddess of the tide whose
sable streams beneath the city glide.
00:00:34.170 --> 00:00:42.170
Those sable streams, long ago we put them out
of sight and out of mind, and so the flow
00:00:42.239 --> 00:00:50.239
of life can go on in this city above.
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Beneath the surface of the every day, is a
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We\'ve created the city inside and out.
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Underground, the city has a
body, not unlike our own.
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We\'ve installed its metal intestines.
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We have forged its molten bowels.
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Like a living entity, the city purges its
wastes, and so hidden down below, our waste
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00:01:29.701 --> 00:01:33.701
What happens when we lift the lid?
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We believe that our waste belongs to no one and
that we can send it away to where we don\'t
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It\'s a dangerous game we play.
00:01:59.500 --> 00:02:02.539
Sewers make sewage all over the world.
00:02:02.740 --> 00:02:07.938
Through its many kilometers of underground
pipe, the sewer collects everything that goes
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down a drain and is flushed away with
water, but where does our sewage go?
00:02:19.400 --> 00:02:23.939
What does it do to us?
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What is a true face of sewage?
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[background noise] Mats of woven
hair, condoms, tampon applicators,
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chicken feet, it\'s all here at the sewage
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Laura has it at the world\'s largest sewage
treatment plant in Chicago, a motorcycle washed
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up [background noise]
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Down into the sewer, factory runoff.
00:03:06.300 --> 00:03:13.518
Every year, thousands of new synthetic chemicals,
organic chemicals, pharmaceuticals, storm
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overflow, food wastes, human excrement, vomit,
detergents, industrial solvents, petroleum
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products, paints, oils, abattoir wastes, cleansers,
asbestos, radioactive materials, heavy metals,
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dental and hospital wastes, just to name a
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This is what we create with the sewer.
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This is sewage.
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American civil engineer, Laura Orlando, has
looked long and hard at the murky soup coming
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down the pipe.
00:04:03.909 --> 00:04:11.909
Here we are today with, I think it\'s something
like 70% of the United States on sewers, 70%,
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75%, it might even be higher.
00:04:16.930 --> 00:04:23.309
When I\'m thinking about a drain that carries
whatever the material might be and dumps it
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into a pipe and brings it somewhere else,
that\'s sewage to me.
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It becomes something else.
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I think that\'s helped us forget about all
of the dangerous things that can be in that
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We don\'t question the sewer, this established
method of sanitation that has its roots in
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another time in ancient history.
00:04:47.510 --> 00:04:55.510
The sewer was in its glory in ancient Rome.
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It was about a vision of being civilized.
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To have sanitation means to be civilized,
dignified, and ennobled.
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It was in classical Rome that the sewers were
first built on a ground scale over 2500 years
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[background noise] Decorated air
events lead to its working bowels.
00:05:28.370 --> 00:05:36.370
Here, the city hints at the malodorous
breath of its underground world.
00:05:37.419 --> 00:05:44.568
Cloacina, she was the Roman goddess of the
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Titus Tatius who ruled with Romulus erected
a statue of Cloacina in honor of this, the
00:05:51.180 --> 00:05:54.568
Venus of sewers, the Cloaca Maxima.
00:05:54.569 --> 00:06:02.569
Built in 616 BC, this antique anus of the
empire is still one of the largest operating
00:06:05.060 --> 00:06:11.719
sewers in the world.
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Cloaca Maxima entrenched the engineering technology
that endures to this day; the collection and
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transport of wastes by the use of water.
00:06:23.900 --> 00:06:31.900
Quite simply, the idea of using water to move
our wastes downstream to where we are not.
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To writer historian Carlo Pavia, the ancient
Cloaca Maxima will always reign Supreme in
00:06:41.660 --> 00:06:49.660
historic or modern-day Rome.
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Ancient Rome at its height purged the wastes
of one man million residents into the Tiber
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The sewer gave birth to Rome.
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Like the very roots of civilization, the
sewer spread out beneath the empire.
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When Rome declined, the Cloaca gradually
choked and the sewer was no more.
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[music] The dark ages that
followed were ranked with
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human and other wastes mixing in the gutters
and ditches of the medieval street.
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Waterborne diseases like cholera
and typhoid were epidemic.
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After centuries of waiting through our
wastes, the idea of sanitation was reborn.
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In the late 19th century, the industrial revolution
brought about the resurrection of the subterranean
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Roman waterborne model.
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As the sewer spread, it improved the human
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By the beginning of the 20th century, toilets
were flushing across the industrialized world.
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The sewer had become the accepted standard
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It was grand scale, greater than Rome could
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With sanitation, our urban
populations could grow.
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Now cities worldwide swept their wastes
away into rivers, lakes, and oceans.
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Consequently, we couldn\'t move our wastes
far enough away anymore.
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Now the waste stream had become a steady
current in our world\'s shrinking waters.
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[background noise] It has been
said the Hindu taught the British
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to bath and the British gave the Hindu the
sewer, and since 1917, raw sewage has been
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channeled into one of the great rivers of
the world, the Ganges.
00:10:09.410 --> 00:10:17.410
Today, the river buckles under the pressure
of the dense population living around it.
00:10:19.190 --> 00:10:26.399
[background noise] Veer Bhadra
Mishra lives in Varanasi, India\'s
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He\'s a highly revered Hindu
priest and engineer.
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Because of the state of the sacred Ganges,
Mishra has become an expert on sewage pollution.
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His understanding of the river is
both spiritual and scientific.
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The Hindu bath in waters that reach pollution
levels 340,000 times what is considered safe.
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But for a devout Hindu, submersion in the river
is a sacred necessity, and so they celebrate
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their faith in the outfall
of the city\'s sewers.
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The Roman sewer we\'ve inherited has made us
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all fish in Mishra\'s pond.
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It\'s a beautiful harbor, but
it\'s a very dirty harbor.
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People come here in the hotel and they look
outside and they say what a beautiful harbor,
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and then they see all these little swirly
things in the water and you have all these
00:14:53.480 --> 00:14:56.539
seagulls around there and they\'re saying,
\"What is that there?
00:14:56.540 --> 00:14:58.519
How come these birds are there?\"
00:14:58.520 --> 00:14:59.520
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For the longest time, I would
never tell anybody what it was.
00:15:02.430 --> 00:15:03.969
I tell people what it is now.
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That way, everybody knows what\'s going on
00:15:07.420 --> 00:15:12.259
All the raw sewage that\'s going out there,
it doesn\'t smell very nice.
00:15:12.260 --> 00:15:16.829
You walk down Water Street on a warm sunny
day and it\'s gross.
00:15:16.830 --> 00:15:21.789
We got 120 million liters of raw untreated
waste that enters the harbor every day.
00:15:21.790 --> 00:15:26.039
If you multiply that by 365 days, you know
we got a pretty busy harbor.
00:15:26.040 --> 00:15:30.519
Right now, we have about 16 feet of crap at
the bottom of the harbor.
00:15:30.520 --> 00:15:34.099
The harbor is like a big bowl.
00:15:34.100 --> 00:15:35.149
A toilet bowl.
00:15:35.150 --> 00:15:39.709
Like a toilet bowl exactly, and the bottom
16 feet of that is just filled with crap,
00:15:39.710 --> 00:15:45.399
but there\'s a huge mound, 20 feet high mound
of crap that\'s just below the outfall.
00:15:45.400 --> 00:15:50.159
It just keeps coming out with solids, of
course, dropping the other stuff drifts away.
00:15:50.160 --> 00:15:55.579
Then it builds to 20 feet and then it collapses
into itself, and then it starts to rebuild
00:15:55.580 --> 00:15:56.580
00:15:56.581 --> 00:16:00.149
This has gone on in five or six different
locations in the harbor.
00:16:00.150 --> 00:16:07.619
Basically, the big thing about this is in
the year 2000, we\'ve come so far and been
00:16:07.620 --> 00:16:15.469
so civilized, how can we be dumping
and living in our own filth?
00:16:15.470 --> 00:16:19.389
We have the facts and we know that the fish
are being diseased.
00:16:19.390 --> 00:16:23.119
Maybe another 20 million liters a day and
that\'s it, it\'s all over, we don\'t know, and
00:16:23.120 --> 00:16:24.120
00:16:24.121 --> 00:16:27.109
We\'re getting more and more sewage
going into that harbor every day.
00:16:27.110 --> 00:16:32.449
That fishery could be shut down all the way
around this East Coast here.
00:16:32.450 --> 00:16:40.450
We\'re falling around this, we\'re sitting
here 30 feet from our own crap.
00:16:47.240 --> 00:16:53.049
00:16:53.050 --> 00:16:54.349
This is what we don\'t see.
00:16:54.350 --> 00:16:57.879
It is out of sight, out of mind.
00:16:57.880 --> 00:17:03.109
80% of Canadian coastal communities
dump their sewage raw.
00:17:03.110 --> 00:17:10.119
Victoria, British Columbia\'s capital, and Nova
Scotia\'s capital, Halifax, released billions
00:17:10.120 --> 00:17:17.009
of liters of raw sewage every year
from outfalls along their coastlines.
00:17:17.010 --> 00:17:19.769
In St. John\'s and everywhere
else, we are persuaded
00:17:19.770 --> 00:17:25.929
that sewage treatment is the answer.
00:17:25.930 --> 00:17:33.930
We place all hope in our sewer technology, and
so in Canada, sewer pipes lead to a treatment
00:17:34.620 --> 00:17:38.789
plant 80% of the time.
00:17:38.790 --> 00:17:43.239
We invest billions of dollars
in sewage treatment.
00:17:43.240 --> 00:17:50.989
It is the crucible in which we expect to purify
toxic sewage, and yet, since the American
00:17:50.990 --> 00:17:57.109
Chemical Revolution of the 1950s, countless
new and unpredictable ingredients are being
00:17:57.110 --> 00:18:00.289
added to the sewage recipe.
00:18:00.290 --> 00:18:05.029
The sewer has become a
superhighway for toxic wastes.
00:18:05.030 --> 00:18:10.629
Every day, a city generates millions of liters
of wastewater that contain untold quantities
00:18:10.630 --> 00:18:14.579
of hazardous components.
00:18:14.580 --> 00:18:19.449
In the treatment process, we attempt to clean
the wastewater and then release these liquids
00:18:19.450 --> 00:18:23.029
back into rivers, lakes, and oceans.
00:18:23.030 --> 00:18:31.030
We call it reclaimed water, but how safe
are these treated liquid effluents?
00:18:34.100 --> 00:18:39.019
Here on the shores of the Bay of Fundy, Dr.
Wayne Fairchild and fellow researchers have
00:18:39.020 --> 00:18:46.199
been tracking the effects of sewage
treatment effluent on the Atlantic salmon.
00:18:46.200 --> 00:18:49.899
Things that we did not think were a problem
in the past, and we\'ve treated literally as
00:18:49.900 --> 00:18:55.109
water going down the sink and not worrying
about it because it was just water, we\'re
00:18:55.110 --> 00:18:57.319
realizing now maybe that\'s not the case.
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A lot of these things are ending up in sewage
treatment plants, and so you\'re consolidating
00:19:02.690 --> 00:19:05.239
a lot of things.
00:19:05.240 --> 00:19:08.959
Some of them may get a clean bill of health,
some may not, but there are certainly many
00:19:08.960 --> 00:19:15.249
products in use right now which we know if
they were exposed to fish in small quantities,
00:19:15.250 --> 00:19:19.219
they\'re going to cause a problem and we\'re using
these things institutionally, industrially.
00:19:19.220 --> 00:19:21.879
We\'re using them in our homes.
00:19:21.880 --> 00:19:24.469
These can all be in
sewage treatment plants.
00:19:24.470 --> 00:19:31.159
The fish basically have to swim a gauntlet of
potential sources of these types of chemicals
00:19:31.160 --> 00:19:35.979
in most of the rivers that they live in just to
the nature of human habitation and settlement.
00:19:35.980 --> 00:19:39.469
When you come down, a lot of these very productive
salmon rivers, what do you have at the end?
00:19:39.470 --> 00:19:45.189
You have a city, possibly a port, industry
associated population, a sewage treatment
00:19:45.190 --> 00:19:51.949
plant or a wastewater treatment plant, all going
in to that final area between the freshwater
00:19:51.950 --> 00:19:58.929
and the ocean where all of the outgoing smolts
have to swim through to get to the ocean.
00:19:58.930 --> 00:20:05.119
So that if you\'re having having low concentrations
of something, you\'ll have a shot at affecting
00:20:05.120 --> 00:20:06.599
the entire population
coming out of that river.
00:20:06.600 --> 00:20:14.009
The problem is these fish were exposed are
now not meeting their potential.
00:20:14.010 --> 00:20:18.109
They\'re smaller fish, they\'re having trouble,
and they are fish that are much less likely
00:20:18.110 --> 00:20:23.159
to survive once they hit the open sea, but
you\'re not going to see that.
00:20:23.160 --> 00:20:25.289
That effect is hidden in the environment.
00:20:25.290 --> 00:20:30.189
In the case of salmon, it\'s hidden completely
because if you lose those fish out at sea,
00:20:30.190 --> 00:20:31.190
they\'re just gone.
00:20:31.191 --> 00:20:32.439
You have no measurement of them at all.
00:20:32.440 --> 00:20:36.029
You don\'t know whether they did well or poorly,
whether they died a month out, or whether
00:20:36.030 --> 00:20:41.889
they died a year later, you
don\'t know, they\'re just gone.
00:20:41.890 --> 00:20:45.579
There\'s a much closer link to things coming
back, things that we put down the drain or
00:20:45.580 --> 00:20:47.679
put out where you seem
to think they\'re gone.
00:20:47.680 --> 00:20:51.059
There\'s actually quite a good link back to
things that are important to us that may end
00:20:51.060 --> 00:20:59.060
up back on our dinner table.
00:21:01.030 --> 00:21:06.890
[music] Around our inland
lakes and rivers, industry
00:21:06.891 --> 00:21:13.289
and sewage treatment
plants lying the shore.
00:21:13.290 --> 00:21:17.189
Treatment plant effluents contain a whole
host of chemicals that may pass through the
00:21:17.190 --> 00:21:20.189
most advanced treatment process unscathed.
00:21:20.190 --> 00:21:27.259
The serious pollution comes
in parts per trillion.
00:21:27.260 --> 00:21:32.949
Pharmaceutical compounds and Canada\'s effluents are
among the highest in the modern industrialized
00:21:32.950 --> 00:21:34.199
00:21:34.200 --> 00:21:39.409
It raises the question, if these contaminants
are harming the fish we eat and are in the
00:21:39.410 --> 00:21:47.410
water we drink, what effects
are they having on us?
00:21:47.940 --> 00:21:55.940
Waste reform advocate, Abby Rockefeller, is
00:21:56.620 --> 00:22:00.639
concerned about the radical disconnection
between us and our wastes.
00:22:00.640 --> 00:22:07.179
In her view, we don\'t understand the consequences
of mixing our wastes together in the sewer.
00:22:07.180 --> 00:22:14.569
The fact that the consequences are not immediately
connectable, in that sense, invisible to anybody\'s
00:22:14.570 --> 00:22:18.900
behavior, they don\'t see it immediately, they
don\'t see the trouble immediately, that it
00:22:18.901 --> 00:22:26.901
makes it extremely easy for people to go on
with their behavior and not thinking and the
00:22:27.370 --> 00:22:32.349
entire culture, everything, the educational
system, the industrial system, all the systems,
00:22:32.350 --> 00:22:38.769
the government all encourage people not to
00:22:38.770 --> 00:22:44.989
We inherit these technologies and there\'s
00:22:44.990 --> 00:22:50.779
choices that were made that people who are
using the systems didn\'t make about how to
00:22:50.780 --> 00:22:57.119
deal with their excreta and there are laws
that tell them they must do it this way.
00:22:57.120 --> 00:23:05.120
That was poor thinking, this bad thinking all
along the line at every point in the treatment
00:23:06.800 --> 00:23:10.659
idea, in the concept of what waste is.
00:23:10.660 --> 00:23:15.879
The principle of mixing, but that\'s the key
mistake it seemed to be, the idea that we
00:23:15.880 --> 00:23:20.179
think we can mix it all together and then
00:23:20.180 --> 00:23:25.659
The sewage treatment process separates the
liquids from the solids into reclaimed water
00:23:25.660 --> 00:23:29.759
00:23:29.760 --> 00:23:34.639
Every year, sewage treatment plants produce
millions of tons of sludge that is settled
00:23:34.640 --> 00:23:36.119
out from sewage wastewater.
00:23:36.120 --> 00:23:44.120
In North America, we have many names for sludge;
solid waste, sewage compost, Nutra cake, black
00:23:46.080 --> 00:23:49.129
gold, or biosolids.
00:23:49.130 --> 00:23:55.639
The name we use depends on what we do with the
sludge, but for Laura Orlando, it is what
00:23:55.640 --> 00:23:56.919
00:23:56.920 --> 00:24:02.299
It was considered a hazardous waste for a
very long time until the part five of three
00:24:02.300 --> 00:24:10.300
rules were written and it was recast as a
beneficial nonhazardous substance.
00:24:11.660 --> 00:24:16.729
Sewage treatment was never meant to clean,
it was never meant to purify, it was never
00:24:16.730 --> 00:24:24.730
meant to result in products that were safe and
beneficial and somehow sanitize and chemical-free
00:24:30.230 --> 00:24:33.729
that could then be reintegrated
into the nutrient cycles.
00:24:33.730 --> 00:24:38.389
Never started out that way and nor
is it possible to make it that way.
00:24:38.390 --> 00:24:46.058
We end up in the treatment process with a very
dangerous material that most, unfortunately,
00:24:46.059 --> 00:24:53.069
we are now putting into life
cycles, putting on land.
00:24:53.070 --> 00:24:59.469
We want to reuse the nutrients in our human
and food wastes.
00:24:59.470 --> 00:25:07.470
The treatment process, however, does not succeed
in eliminating the pathogens in human waste.
00:25:08.110 --> 00:25:15.609
We also know that sludge contains an
unknown and vast array of chemical wastes.
00:25:15.610 --> 00:25:19.039
The pressure is on to dispose of sludge.
00:25:19.040 --> 00:25:23.299
Whatever it\'s made of,
it has to go somewhere.
00:25:23.300 --> 00:25:27.959
Almost half of the sludge
produced is applied to farmland.
00:25:27.960 --> 00:25:30.919
In many cases, it is free of charge to the
00:25:30.920 --> 00:25:38.920
It is touted as a soil conditioner, but no
one really knows what\'s in it.
00:25:41.460 --> 00:25:46.619
Several forms of wastes find their way onto
our productive farmland under the guise of
00:25:46.620 --> 00:25:48.759
00:25:48.760 --> 00:25:56.760
Among them, pulp and papers sludges, raw
septic waste, as well as sewage sludge.
00:25:58.720 --> 00:26:06.179
Not long after moving to rural Ontario, Maureen
Reilly experienced the situation firsthand.
00:26:06.180 --> 00:26:12.929
Forced into activism, she now pioneers the
anti sludge movement in Canada.
00:26:12.930 --> 00:26:19.959
I found out that they were planning on putting
5,000 tons of paper mill sludge residue all
00:26:19.960 --> 00:26:25.359
in these fields where the cattle graze all
around the house in all three sides, and I
00:26:25.360 --> 00:26:28.849
thought, \"I\'ve never heard of such a thing
that they would take industrial waste and
00:26:28.850 --> 00:26:31.999
just put it on the top of pastureland.\"
00:26:32.000 --> 00:26:36.129
I didn\'t think that the chemicals that would
be in that waste would be good for the cattle,
00:26:36.130 --> 00:26:40.709
and certainly, didn\'t think anyone would want
to come to a bed and breakfast where there
00:26:40.710 --> 00:26:42.549
was industrial waste around the house.
00:26:42.550 --> 00:26:45.399
I started to ask some questions.
00:26:45.400 --> 00:26:49.869
I made some phone calls and I didn\'t like
the answers I was getting.
00:26:49.870 --> 00:26:52.609
People were very evasive.
00:26:52.610 --> 00:26:56.379
The Ministry of Agriculture didn\'t want to
talk about it.
00:26:56.380 --> 00:27:02.959
There were a lot of very dodgy answers around
what the chemicals and the sled would be.
00:27:02.960 --> 00:27:10.960
It\'s a combination of chemicals, heavy metals,
materials that may be contaminated and maybe
00:27:12.510 --> 00:27:15.399
dangerous or may not be.
00:27:15.400 --> 00:27:19.599
The problem is no one\'s testing that before
they bring it out to the countryside.
00:27:19.600 --> 00:27:24.269
The farmer doesn\'t know what\'s in that
truck and maybe there is no farmer.
00:27:24.270 --> 00:27:29.379
Maybe the waste hauler owns that field and
then no one\'s really looking.
00:27:29.380 --> 00:27:35.009
It was really though when I\'d ask them questions
and then the waste hauler came knocking on
00:27:35.010 --> 00:27:42.139
my door here after dark one night to tell me
really what would happen to me if I didn\'t
00:27:42.140 --> 00:27:49.489
stop asking questions that I really knew that the
management of these waste out in the countryside
00:27:49.490 --> 00:27:53.549
were quite out of control.
00:27:53.550 --> 00:27:59.199
Maureen Reilly was contacted by a local farm
family subject to a different form of sewage
00:27:59.200 --> 00:28:00.599
00:28:00.600 --> 00:28:08.600
Each year, hundreds of millions of liters
of raw untreated, untested septage is being
00:28:08.760 --> 00:28:12.269
deposited on farmland.
00:28:12.270 --> 00:28:20.270
Septage is human and household wastes
pumped from individual septic tanks.
00:28:22.570 --> 00:28:27.539
Farmers Terri Boadway and her husband Tim
find themselves at the mercy of the growing
00:28:27.540 --> 00:28:32.789
drive to dispose of sewage waste
on productive Canadian farmland.
00:28:32.790 --> 00:28:36.859
Their neighbor receives raw septic waste.
00:28:36.860 --> 00:28:41.589
People can\'t comprehend that sewage waste
is being dumped on farmland.
00:28:41.590 --> 00:28:47.269
You drive past these farms, you would never
00:28:47.270 --> 00:28:53.129
Neighbors aren\'t notified when they\'re
going to be dumping sewage on land.
00:28:53.130 --> 00:28:56.699
We didn\'t know that this
was going to be happening.
00:28:56.700 --> 00:29:01.469
They don\'t make anyone around the
area aware of what\'s happening.
00:29:01.470 --> 00:29:02.659
All year he\'s here.
00:29:02.660 --> 00:29:06.308
It doesn\'t matter whether it\'s raining, it
doesn\'t matter whether it\'s snowing, it doesn\'t
00:29:06.309 --> 00:29:09.429
matter what, he comes in and he dumps.
00:29:09.430 --> 00:29:11.469
How often does he come?
00:29:11.470 --> 00:29:16.569
Anywhere from once to four or five times a
00:29:16.570 --> 00:29:17.570
Times a day.
00:29:17.571 --> 00:29:21.409
Yes, and they\'ve told me at the ministry,
this is what I say to them, I say, \"You know
00:29:21.410 --> 00:29:22.410
00:29:22.411 --> 00:29:26.669
He\'s been here and he comes in at least
once a day up to five times a day.\"
00:29:26.670 --> 00:29:32.299
I\'m questioning where is it coming from and
no one will answer me.
00:29:32.300 --> 00:29:34.629
This has been going on how long.
00:29:34.630 --> 00:29:36.999
Two years, a little over two years.
00:29:37.000 --> 00:29:42.209
The gentleman who lives across from us over
here, you would have gone past his house on
00:29:42.210 --> 00:29:49.069
your way over, he had his water tested and
it\'s come back contaminated with E.
00:29:49.070 --> 00:29:55.579
00:29:55.580 --> 00:29:58.939
Sewage contamination is what it said.
00:29:58.940 --> 00:30:03.009
In the neighborhood fields, Maureen Reilly
takes a closer look.
00:30:03.010 --> 00:30:07.649
There look, there\'s...
Yes, there’s plastic.
00:30:07.650 --> 00:30:09.979
A compost package.
00:30:09.980 --> 00:30:12.789
There\'s a possibility that
they could be growing.
00:30:12.790 --> 00:30:18.308
They could grow crops for human consumption
on this field.
00:30:18.309 --> 00:30:22.139
I don\'t think I\'d want to eat
vegetables grown on here.
00:30:22.140 --> 00:30:30.140
We don\'t know what was in those pumps outs,
what kind of toxic cleaning fluids and it
00:30:31.410 --> 00:30:34.829
could be almost anything.
00:30:34.830 --> 00:30:42.830
Do you know that the waste industry wants
to come out and put their industrial ways
00:30:44.000 --> 00:30:46.019
on these fields?
00:30:46.020 --> 00:30:49.009
That\'s surprising, but it\'s
sort of understandable.
00:30:49.010 --> 00:30:54.058
I think the real shock is when you find out
that the government isn\'t going to help you
00:30:54.059 --> 00:31:00.139
and that the government is not only not helping
you, is only not prepared to deal with it
00:31:00.140 --> 00:31:05.789
environmentally, but that they
actually thwart the public\'s concerns.
00:31:05.790 --> 00:31:11.839
That\'s where the real sense of
shock and betrayal comes from.
00:31:11.840 --> 00:31:19.199
It says a lot about our culture to think that
we would even take the gamble to ruin our
00:31:19.200 --> 00:31:26.529
productive agricultural soil by putting a
material that we, at best, I say we know a
00:31:26.530 --> 00:31:27.530
00:31:27.531 --> 00:31:34.259
We know that it causes great harm, but even
if there are doubts about it, why put it on
00:31:34.260 --> 00:31:35.579
00:31:35.580 --> 00:31:40.539
Across the industrialized world, the need
to dispose of sludge and sewage waste takes
00:31:40.540 --> 00:31:43.749
precedence over public safety.
00:31:43.750 --> 00:31:47.229
The experience in Sweden brings home what
this gamble means.
00:31:47.230 --> 00:31:53.589
There, they have made a direct connection
between sewage sludge and public health.
00:31:53.590 --> 00:31:59.629
Gunnar Lindgren knows all too well the forces
that prevent Maureen Reilly\'s concerns from
00:31:59.630 --> 00:32:00.798
00:32:00.799 --> 00:32:06.689
Here is a strong voice of the successful
anti-sludge movement in Sweden.
00:32:06.690 --> 00:32:10.489
Yes, it\'s a huge problem.
00:32:10.490 --> 00:32:15.399
If you have built a sewage plant, you will
00:32:15.400 --> 00:32:23.400
You get it 24 hours a day and you have to
get rid of it in any way you know.
00:32:24.630 --> 00:32:29.428
It\'s a depressing situation
for all the counties.
00:32:29.429 --> 00:32:37.099
When you\'re spreading sludge on the acres,
the level of metals they are increasing very
00:32:37.100 --> 00:32:41.999
rapid and the authorities know that, but they
have to accept it because they want to get
00:32:42.000 --> 00:32:43.349
rid of the sludge.
00:32:43.350 --> 00:32:51.350
Sooner or later, you will come to a limit
when you see severe problems.
00:32:52.410 --> 00:33:00.410
One could be that the copper, that\'s the copper
metal, comes to a level where it is a poison
00:33:00.809 --> 00:33:06.298
for the soils and the organism in the soil.
00:33:06.299 --> 00:33:11.928
That means that you can\'t have agriculture
any longer on these acres.
00:33:11.929 --> 00:33:19.019
Remember, it\'s forever to the end of this
planet, you can\'t help it because metal, you
00:33:19.020 --> 00:33:21.259
can\'t remove it from the acres.
00:33:21.260 --> 00:33:28.539
You can also find that whatever damage it
causes; cancer, infections, or whatever, the
00:33:28.540 --> 00:33:35.199
authorities say that we have to accept it
because we need to get rid of it.
00:33:35.200 --> 00:33:42.939
They make a discussion called risk-benefit
analysis and that means that even if there
00:33:42.940 --> 00:33:46.289
are risks, we need to get rid of it.
00:33:46.290 --> 00:33:52.549
In many countries, it\'s no use to come to
arguments with a dead body and say, \"This
00:33:52.550 --> 00:33:55.119
was killed of sludge.\"
00:33:55.120 --> 00:34:00.058
The authorities will say people are killed
in traffic or whatever.
00:34:00.059 --> 00:34:04.559
We need to get rid of the
sludge, that\'s the main thing.
00:34:04.560 --> 00:34:10.138
At his home on the Baltic, Swedish engineer
Carl Lindstrom describes how the sludge story
00:34:10.139 --> 00:34:15.209
unfolded and came to ahead for the Swedes.
00:34:15.210 --> 00:34:23.210
The policy was very much pro-sludge spreading
and I think there wasn\'t much alternatives.
00:34:25.580 --> 00:34:31.469
You could burn sludge and create air pollution
which wasn\'t much better or you could dump
00:34:31.470 --> 00:34:38.679
it in the ocean and that was obviously
stopped too for good reasons.
00:34:38.680 --> 00:34:46.680
Then there was a particular event where they
found flame retardants in the sludge which
00:34:51.889 --> 00:34:59.889
came from both small and big treatment plants,
and that was associated with cancer, a special
00:35:00.690 --> 00:35:02.319
kind of cancer.
00:35:02.320 --> 00:35:05.889
00:35:05.890 --> 00:35:13.309
Eminent Swedish oncologist, Lennart Hardell
We picked out this disease because very much
00:35:13.310 --> 00:35:19.369
of our research has been on Non-Hodgkins lymphoma,
which is some kind of lymph node disease which
00:35:19.370 --> 00:35:21.139
00:35:21.140 --> 00:35:26.319
Then we knew about the brominated flame retardants
that they are quite similar as PCB, so we
00:35:26.320 --> 00:35:33.618
had a suspicion that we could probably find
brominated flame retardants in our cancer
00:35:33.619 --> 00:35:37.529
patients too, which was actually the case.
00:35:37.530 --> 00:35:43.599
Then the research team up in Umeå where the
environmental chemists work who do this type
00:35:43.600 --> 00:35:45.409
of analysis for us.
00:35:45.410 --> 00:35:52.909
They went on to analyze food, and we did find
that there were brominated flame retardants
00:35:52.910 --> 00:35:55.169
in different types of food.
00:35:55.170 --> 00:35:59.359
The concentration in
mother\'s milk is increasing.
00:35:59.360 --> 00:36:05.839
We have historical batches in Sweden from
early 1970s, and at that time, there were
00:36:05.840 --> 00:36:11.689
very low concentrations, and now, the curve
is going straight up, and the concentration
00:36:11.690 --> 00:36:16.358
is doubling every six years in mothers\'
milk of brominated flame retardants.
00:36:16.359 --> 00:36:21.179
We also pointed to the fact that this was
found in human beings, this is found in food,
00:36:21.180 --> 00:36:27.529
this is probably a cancer risk, and this can
also be found in the sewage sludges which
00:36:27.530 --> 00:36:33.599
is spread over the farmland.
00:36:33.600 --> 00:36:41.600
We questioned if this really should be done in
the future and we discussed the probability
00:36:44.020 --> 00:36:50.608
that it could go into the food
chain through the sludge.
00:36:50.609 --> 00:36:55.059
Public reaction to these findings was
strong enough to influence food producers.
00:36:55.060 --> 00:37:01.189
The Swedish National Farmers Association put a ban
on spreading of sludge on Swedish agricultural
00:37:01.190 --> 00:37:02.989
00:37:02.990 --> 00:37:09.899
This was not government legislated, but driven
by the sheer economic power of the consumer.
00:37:09.900 --> 00:37:14.839
In the short term, the Swedes are landfilling
their sludge in non-critical areas such as
00:37:14.840 --> 00:37:17.469
00:37:17.470 --> 00:37:22.099
Both the Netherlands and Belgium have long
since banned spreading sewage sludge on their
00:37:22.100 --> 00:37:28.849
agricultural land because of concerns
of chemical uptake into the food chain.
00:37:28.850 --> 00:37:33.789
In Canada, a sludge sample taken from Toronto\'s
Ashbridges Bay Wastewater Treatment Plant
00:37:33.790 --> 00:37:41.790
reveals higher levels of bromine flame
retardants than those found in European sludge.
00:37:42.190 --> 00:37:47.049
When you find chemicals such as these flame
retardants, you know that that is just the
00:37:47.050 --> 00:37:52.689
tip of the iceberg because there are so many
things that they\'re not looking for at the
00:37:52.690 --> 00:37:53.959
00:37:53.960 --> 00:37:56.899
You can call it a mirror.
00:37:56.900 --> 00:38:02.069
If you have poison somewhere in an industry,
you will have the poison in the sludge.
00:38:02.070 --> 00:38:09.759
If you are using color for your hair, you
will have it in the sludge, and so on.
00:38:09.760 --> 00:38:14.669
It\'s a basket of all the bad things.
00:38:14.670 --> 00:38:22.479
If you say that broccoli is a healthy vegetable,
the next question is, of course, where is
00:38:22.480 --> 00:38:25.609
that broccoli coming from?
00:38:25.610 --> 00:38:28.929
What is it grown on?
00:38:28.930 --> 00:38:36.930
You can see that broccoli grown on one soil
can be very good for you and if it contains
00:38:38.070 --> 00:38:42.209
heavy metals, it can be very bad for you.
00:38:42.210 --> 00:38:49.608
I think by focusing attention on what we eat,
you have to go deeper and deeper into the
00:38:49.609 --> 00:38:53.649
question of what is actually in that food.
00:38:53.650 --> 00:38:59.589
[background noise] Welcome to Edmonton\'s
$100 million state-of-the-art
00:38:59.590 --> 00:39:01.159
00:39:01.160 --> 00:39:07.849
[background noise] In sharp contrast
to the anti-sludge movement
00:39:07.850 --> 00:39:13.529
in parts of Europe, here in Canada, we seem to
be fanning the flames of the sludge problems.
00:39:13.530 --> 00:39:20.089
We\'ve embraced the idea of cool composting,
wherein two big sitting weights dilemmas are
00:39:20.090 --> 00:39:28.059
seemingly solved by mixing municipal
garbage and sewage sludge.
00:39:28.060 --> 00:39:34.539
These waste materials undergo a digestive
00:39:34.540 --> 00:39:42.540
process and are packaged as Nutri Plus, a compost
promoted for home gardens and agricultural
00:39:44.490 --> 00:39:46.409
00:39:46.410 --> 00:39:54.410
They listed the nutrient ingredients on their
mixed waste product, but not the toxins, nor
00:39:54.790 --> 00:39:56.618
the heavy metals.
00:39:56.619 --> 00:40:01.749
Currently, the city of Edmonton no longer
markets this co-compost product under the
00:40:01.750 --> 00:40:07.749
name of Nutri Plus, but continues to sell it
as a compost enhanced topsoil to the public
00:40:07.750 --> 00:40:12.939
and to agricultural markets.
00:40:12.940 --> 00:40:18.559
Edmonton\'s co-composting facility is viewed as
highly progressive by other Canadian cities.
00:40:18.560 --> 00:40:23.949
I guess I would say that people are in an
00:40:23.950 --> 00:40:26.089
They don\'t feel what\'s the problem.
00:40:26.090 --> 00:40:30.789
It\'s not getting to their consciousness that
there\'s trouble being caused with what they
00:40:30.790 --> 00:40:32.479
00:40:32.480 --> 00:40:37.329
That\'s very serious that it is okay
with people that it\'s out of sight.
00:40:37.330 --> 00:40:45.330
They don\'t wonder what has happened, what
did it do.
00:40:48.859 --> 00:40:56.439
In Bear River, Nova Scotia, the residents
00:40:56.440 --> 00:41:03.779
have voted for a different approach;
a solar aquatic treatment system.
00:41:03.780 --> 00:41:11.780
It is placed the end of the sewer pipe into
the center of town and into the mind of the
00:41:12.119 --> 00:41:13.119
00:41:13.120 --> 00:41:17.439
It may not be a solution to our sewage wars,
but it has made the town think about what
00:41:17.440 --> 00:41:20.789
is happening to their water.
00:41:20.790 --> 00:41:24.399
You can end up using water with impunity.
00:41:24.400 --> 00:41:26.159
People just don\'t.
00:41:26.160 --> 00:41:32.459
It\'s never in people\'s mindset what happens
to the water, what they do with it.
00:41:32.460 --> 00:41:36.289
Most treatment plants have a big mechanical
bar screen and they\'re constantly pulling
00:41:36.290 --> 00:41:41.309
off anything here, condoms, et cetera, that
people just flush down their toilets.
00:41:41.310 --> 00:41:46.719
Here, where everyone come down and walk through
the system and they identify with their sewage
00:41:46.720 --> 00:41:50.329
now and they call it our sewage treatment
00:41:50.330 --> 00:41:52.959
That stuff just doesn\'t happen anymore.
00:41:52.960 --> 00:41:54.409
People don\'t flush stuff down the toilets.
00:41:54.410 --> 00:41:57.519
In the winter time, there\'s nothing when
it\'s just the local residents there.
00:41:57.520 --> 00:42:00.389
She never has to clean the bar screen.
00:42:00.390 --> 00:42:06.489
It the tourists haven\'t been fully educated
yet, so they still do it, but they\'ve looked
00:42:06.490 --> 00:42:10.299
down and they say, \"That\'s where it goes?
00:42:10.300 --> 00:42:13.279
That\'s what happens when I flush it down to
00:42:13.280 --> 00:42:14.280
00:42:14.281 --> 00:42:20.179
It\'s made it too easy almost for people to
get rid of their sewage.
00:42:20.180 --> 00:42:28.180
I really like the idea of having it in your
face that this is your sewage, it\'s in your
00:42:29.340 --> 00:42:34.368
face, you have to deal with it, deal with
your own stuff.
00:42:34.369 --> 00:42:39.439
No matter what kind of sewage treatment system
we use to clean up after ourselves, the problem
00:42:39.440 --> 00:42:42.309
continues to be the same.
00:42:42.310 --> 00:42:47.608
It is our daily habitual use of all sorts of
chemicals in our homes, in our industries,
00:42:47.609 --> 00:42:54.779
and institutions that find their way to the
00:42:54.780 --> 00:43:02.780
[background noise] The laborers
that help me run this plant are
00:43:03.590 --> 00:43:05.639
spiders, praying mantis,
snails, and bacteria.
00:43:05.640 --> 00:43:06.999
All those things help.
00:43:07.000 --> 00:43:09.999
Everything in here is biological.
00:43:10.000 --> 00:43:16.489
It\'s either composted, recycled, or eaten.
00:43:16.490 --> 00:43:22.199
I\'ve had high school teachers actually make
00:43:22.200 --> 00:43:25.889
their biology and chemistry students write
exams on this place.
00:43:25.890 --> 00:43:29.169
I\'ve taken them through here and then four
other sewage treatment plants.
00:43:29.170 --> 00:43:34.589
They get an overview that there are different
methods and it gives kids an idea that when
00:43:34.590 --> 00:43:40.259
they\'re just home at their house and the laundry\'s
going and somebody\'s doing dishes and somebody
00:43:40.260 --> 00:43:42.629
else is flushing the toilet, that it just
00:43:42.630 --> 00:43:45.539
Somebody has to deal with it down the line.
00:43:45.540 --> 00:43:46.540
00:43:46.541 --> 00:43:52.239
It goes out, in our case, into the river, which
feeds into the bay or into a small basin,
00:43:52.240 --> 00:43:56.098
which feeds into the Bay of Fundy, and the
Bay of Fundy is one of the most important
00:43:56.099 --> 00:43:58.429
bays that this world has to offer.
00:43:58.430 --> 00:44:02.419
The highest tides in the world and some of
the most incredible sea light that you\'re
00:44:02.420 --> 00:44:03.420
ever going to see.
00:44:03.421 --> 00:44:07.219
You can\'t just afford to flush chemicals or
paint thinner down the toilet and say it\'s
00:44:07.220 --> 00:44:14.868
gone, it\'s not gone.
00:44:14.869 --> 00:44:19.829
Abby Rockefeller believes we should choose the
services, the products, and the chemicals
00:44:19.830 --> 00:44:26.219
that become a part of our wastes.
00:44:26.220 --> 00:44:31.629
She calls for a change in public policy, and
ultimately, for a revolution of the system
00:44:31.630 --> 00:44:32.630
00:44:32.631 --> 00:44:40.631
It\'s thought to be the peak of rational the way
this all works, that you can put everything
00:44:43.430 --> 00:44:45.589
down a couple of strains.
00:44:45.590 --> 00:44:53.590
It is the peak of irrational, of non-life
connected behavior, so there needs to be a
00:44:55.640 --> 00:45:03.009
policy change away from the mixing of wastes
and the using of water to carry wastes.
00:45:03.010 --> 00:45:07.499
Water simply shouldn\'t be used as
the vehicle to carry any waste.
00:45:07.500 --> 00:45:13.429
The reason I started with working with composting
toilets, with the Clivus Multrum in particular,
00:45:13.430 --> 00:45:21.430
was to get a real-life live thing, so to speak,
out there in the world for people to see.
00:45:22.150 --> 00:45:25.229
The composting toilet is
not a new technology.
00:45:25.230 --> 00:45:29.389
It has been out there for some time quietly
waiting to be noticed.
00:45:29.390 --> 00:45:36.119
The virtues of the composting toilet
or ecological toilet are many.
00:45:36.120 --> 00:45:39.209
First and foremost, it doesn\'t use water.
00:45:39.210 --> 00:45:45.829
Also, in economic terms, 90% of our presence
sewer system costs lie in the transport of
00:45:45.830 --> 00:45:53.830
our waste, in the sewering
of our communities.
00:45:55.140 --> 00:46:00.889
The odors from fresh material go down the
shoot, so the bathroom never smells when it\'s
00:46:00.890 --> 00:46:02.219
00:46:02.220 --> 00:46:06.259
That\'s actually something hard to describe,
you really have to live with it to know the
00:46:06.260 --> 00:46:08.769
great benefits of that.
00:46:08.770 --> 00:46:13.479
The journey for these wastes leads
to a composter in the basement.
00:46:13.480 --> 00:46:16.919
This is the clean out end of this compost
00:46:16.920 --> 00:46:24.149
This is a Clivus Multrum type
composter, one of the early versions.
00:46:24.150 --> 00:46:28.629
What we\'re looking at here is the finished
compost and the liquid.
00:46:28.630 --> 00:46:33.199
This is the place where you take out both
the liquid product and the compost product.
00:46:33.200 --> 00:46:37.259
It has been in here for anywhere from 3 to
00:46:37.260 --> 00:46:41.629
The compost part has the liquid, it comes
through more quickly and is stored in that
00:46:41.630 --> 00:46:44.199
central chamber over there.
00:46:44.200 --> 00:46:48.699
The principle of this whole idea is that the
urine gets to travel through the bottom of
00:46:48.700 --> 00:46:56.700
the oldest materials, really like soil and
it is transformed and becomes odorless by
00:46:56.810 --> 00:46:58.509
the time it gets here.
00:46:58.510 --> 00:47:05.399
Then the solids are transformed by the composting
process, bacteria, and other small creatures.
00:47:05.400 --> 00:47:09.899
What comes through here is like the soil.
00:47:09.900 --> 00:47:17.799
What can live in the old compost is essentially
the microbial and other life that can live
00:47:17.800 --> 00:47:19.848
00:47:19.849 --> 00:47:22.179
All food waste goes in this
as well, so that\'s why.
00:47:22.180 --> 00:47:23.839
I didn\'t explain that before.
00:47:23.840 --> 00:47:30.389
It takes all the kitchen wastes, including
paper towels that we use to clean up with
00:47:30.390 --> 00:47:37.129
and fat and bones and really everything from
the kitchen so that we don\'t put any food
00:47:37.130 --> 00:47:39.069
waste in the trash.
00:47:39.070 --> 00:47:42.929
That makes it much easier to deal with the
trash, I can say that.
00:47:42.930 --> 00:47:49.389
This partition here, that is very important,
that\'s what is the reason for our sticking
00:47:49.390 --> 00:47:54.499
with the big size of this one, that the size
makes it possible for these materials to be
00:47:54.500 --> 00:47:55.919
in here for a long time.
00:47:55.920 --> 00:47:59.409
That\'s what makes it possible for them to
be safe from a health point of view for the
00:47:59.410 --> 00:48:00.539
handling of them.
00:48:00.540 --> 00:48:03.749
You can see that there are earthworms.
00:48:03.750 --> 00:48:09.229
There are some earth worms pulling back in
there, and it smells like garden soil, the
00:48:09.230 --> 00:48:11.389
best kind of garden soil.
00:48:11.390 --> 00:48:14.789
Can it smell it?
00:48:14.790 --> 00:48:15.790
00:48:15.791 --> 00:48:19.899
Yes, it smells great, actually.
00:48:19.900 --> 00:48:21.609
00:48:21.610 --> 00:48:22.869
I would say that\'s soil.
00:48:22.870 --> 00:48:29.149
That is soil and the smell is an extremely
good indication of the level of breakdown.
00:48:29.150 --> 00:48:37.150
It\'s a very good indicator that
it has advanced to a safe stage.
00:48:37.210 --> 00:48:45.210
The more we look at our wastes, the more
firmly the answers will be fixed in our minds.
00:48:45.480 --> 00:48:52.189
As we continue building and rebuilding our
world, as our vision of civilization evolves,
00:48:52.190 --> 00:48:57.699
there are achievable ways in which we can direct
our efforts towards sustainable sanitation
00:48:57.700 --> 00:49:01.279
00:49:01.280 --> 00:49:04.629
Let\'s stop sewering up new communities.
00:49:04.630 --> 00:49:10.469
There\'s no reason why we can\'t have communities
that are not attached to sewer pipes.
00:49:10.470 --> 00:49:16.829
When we sewer up a new community, we\'re really
inviting industry to use the sewers as a way
00:49:16.830 --> 00:49:19.779
to get rid of their toxic waste.
00:49:19.780 --> 00:49:26.229
It\'s invisible, every drain and grate and
toilet and sink become an avenue for toxic
00:49:26.230 --> 00:49:30.999
00:49:31.000 --> 00:49:36.209
The sewer issue because that\'s
just an immense problem.
00:49:36.210 --> 00:49:37.879
To lay sewers?
00:49:37.880 --> 00:49:41.179
What a monumental,
unspeakably difficult task.
00:49:41.180 --> 00:49:47.149
To lay sewers to gravity feed from all over the
place under the ground, it\'s a impossibly,
00:49:47.150 --> 00:49:54.329
it seems, intricate task, and it was done, but
backing off it isn\'t impossible and backing
00:49:54.330 --> 00:49:58.319
off it is what we must
do one of these days.
00:49:58.320 --> 00:50:04.009
[bell rings] Industrial waste, that has to
be a tight loop.
00:50:04.010 --> 00:50:11.979
Every industry should recycle, in one way or
another, its own wastes, and if they can\'t
00:50:11.980 --> 00:50:14.419
do it, you can\'t produce those things.
00:50:14.420 --> 00:50:19.029
That\'s what the policy should be, that you
can only produce something whose materials
00:50:19.030 --> 00:50:20.920
can stay in an industrial loop.
00:50:20.921 --> 00:50:27.309
If it\'s not your loop, it\'s another industry\'s
loop, but stay in the industrial loop.
00:50:27.310 --> 00:50:35.310
That\'s just obvious, but it\'s a huge policy
change, but it\'s something life requires.
00:50:40.099 --> 00:50:48.099
You can\'t solve the problem by technology,
00:50:51.300 --> 00:50:59.300
you can only solve it by a change of social
behavior, and we are not there.
00:50:59.910 --> 00:51:05.669
People are still hoping that somebody else,
some engineer or whatever they should take
00:51:05.670 --> 00:51:08.839
care of it but not myself.
00:51:08.840 --> 00:51:16.840
I\'m waiting for a new generation, it will
come, it must come.
00:52:26.990 --> 00:52:34.990