Main content

The Shadow of Gold

THE SHADOW OF GOLD takes an unflinching look at how the world's favorite heavy metal is extracted from the earth. The film explores both sides of the industry: the big-time mining companies that dig deep and lop off mountaintops to extract gold from low-grade ore, and the small-time miners - an estimated 20 million people in the world's poorest nations - who extract gold by hand, often producing just enough to survive.

We meet back-country guides and entrepreneurs in Montana with deep suspicions about a proposed gold mine that could destroy their pristine wilderness, indigenous people in British Columbia struggling to recover from a spill of toxic mine waste, a woman miner in the Congo who is determined to keep her gold from feeding the flames of war, a brotherhood of Chinese miners, sick with silicosis, fighting a state-owned gold mine for compensation, and an artisanal miner in Peru who knows that the mercury he uses to process gold is toxic and polluting, but feels he has no other option.

And at the top of the supply chain - in London, Dubai and Toronto - we show how conflict gold reaches unaware consumers and how gold-mining corporations are allowed to damage ecosystems with impunity.

The film reveals that glittering gold has a dark shadow. But it doesn't leave it there. We engage with engineers, scientists, and Fair-Trade advocates who work with miners to tackle gold's worst environmental and social problems. In an industrial-scale mine, we see new technology that replaces cyanide-based processing with a biological process that leaves no toxic cyanide in the waste. We watch small-scale miners benefit from technology that replaces mercury with an environmentally friendly process that actually produces more gold. We meet Fair Trade jewelers who are committed to transparent supply chain initiatives that ensure consumers know exactly where their gold comes from.

In the end, THE SHADOW OF GOLD isn't all about gold, or even its shadow. The film enters the lives and tells the moving stories of hard-working people who face danger just to go to work every day, in the hope of securing a better life for their families.

'The Shadow of Gold offers an important overview of what we are buying - or buying into - when we invest in gold bars or purchase gold jewelry. The gold trade is breathtaking in its exploitation of workers, indigenous populations, and the environment. This film can be used as an introduction to the economic, social, political, and environmental dimensions of the gold trade and is well suited for viewing and discussing in the classroom or in the community.' Linda Forst, Professor of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Illinois-Chicago

'Shadow of Gold is a reminder that we are going to greater lengths - with more ecological and human collateral - to extract smaller amounts of gold. As an educator, I look for films like this one to convey complex, systematic problems through tangible stories of impacted communities. It's an informative look at the global network of drivers behind the large-and small-scale gold mining industries.' Mozhgon Rajaee, Assistant Professor of Public Health, Oakland University

'The Shadow of Gold tells very important stories about how we are all globally connected to gold, including the conflict and pollution that mining companies don't like to talk about.' Nuskmata Mack, Past Coordinator, First Nations Women Advocating Responsible Mining

'The Shadow of Gold is a very important film that should be seen broadly to help spur urgent debate about how consumers, legislators and communities can hold the gold industry to account.' David Suzuki, award-winning scientist, environmentalist and broadcaster

'This is a stunning yet shocking depiction of the devastating environmental, economic and social consequences of industrial and small-scale artisanal gold mining around the world. In an optimistic twist, the film moves beyond these problems offering real world solutions. I will use this film in my sustainability courses, and recommend it for educators and activists who teach or work at the intersection of environment and social justice and who desire a global perspective.' Dr. Richard Niesenbaum, Director of Sustainability Studies, Muhlenberg College, Author, Sustainable Solutions: Problem Solving for Current and Future Generations

'Excellent film. The Shadow of Gold is a comprehensive, global examination of gold throughout its supply chain that balances both environmental and business oriented perspectives, while simultaneously not shying away from the severe social and ecological impacts of contemporary mining. I highly recommend this film for both educational and community organizing purposes.' Jerry Jacka, Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Colorado-Boulder, Author, Alchemy in the Rain Forest: Politics, Ecology, and Resilience in a New Guinea Mining Area

'An ambitious exploration of a metal that still fascinates the world.' Thomas Walkom, Toronto Star

'By shining a light on the possibilities for more sustainable practices, the film encourages viewers to strive to protect the purity of our environment, and, finally, to re-think the sort of luxury that comes in gold.' Maria Paula Serrano, Vancouver Weekly

'if you're someone who waltzes into the jewelry store to figure out how to add some bling to your life, the new documentary The Shadow of Gold has a message for you - stop...The human stories resonate...Where big business thrives, nothing else does.' Mark Hanson, In the Seats

'A comprehensive look at the secretive global gold mining industry and the people who work in it and seek to change it.' Peter Robb, Artsfile

'The film is able to make the audience reflect on how this commodity, so much present in our lives, has a not-so-shining side indeed.' Sergio Martinez, Montreal Times

'The Shadow of Gold criss-crosses the planet to shed light on the shiny substance.' Chris Knight, National Post

'This film is a good reminder what the jeweler of the future should do and also a reference to educate our clients to ask for better solutions.' Olga Leclair, Jeweler, LOFT.bijoux

'This documentary is a great first step for consumers to make in educating themselves on the challenges of the gold supply chain.' Kesha Frank, Fair Trade Jewellery Co.

'As a jeweler, the question 'Where does the gold I am using come from?' is always lurking in the shadows of my mind. This documentary gives all of the unsettling answers about the mining industry you would prefer not to hear. But it also lets you know that there are organizations that are working to further consciousness and implement standards and rules to change things for the better.' Annegret Morf, Goldsmith, Serafino

'The Shadow of Gold expertly documents environmental and human health problems with both large-scale gold mining using cyanide leaching and small-scale gold mining dependent on mercury use. As the documentary weaves together personal experiences from all over the world, it pushes viewers to consider the real cost of gold and if 'clean' gold extraction is ever possible.' Henrik Selin, Associate Professor of International Relations, Boston University, Author, Mercury Stories: Understanding Sustainability through a Volatile Element

'This film is a must-see for anyone teaching about environmental justice. The important questions about the gold supply chain and the interconnected human-environmental consequences are rendered in heart-breaking detail.' Ruth Goldstein, Assistant Professor, Gender and Women's Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Author, Life in Traffic: Women, Plants, and Gold Along the Interoceanic Highway (forthcoming)

Citation

Main credits

Delestrac, Denis (film director)
Lang, Robert (film director)
Lang, Robert (film producer)
Blake, Sally (film director)
Blake, Sally (film producer)

Other credits

Edited by Franck Nakache, Sarah Bachinski, James Blokland; music composed by Eric Cadesky, Nick Dyer; cinematographers, Mark Caswell [and 7 others].


Docuseek subjects

Distributor subjects

Anthropology
Business Practices
China
Consumerism
Economics
Environment
Fair Trade
Gender Studies
Geology
Globalization
Health
Human Rights
Indigenous Peoples
International Trade
Labor and Work Issues
Law
Mining
Pollution
Resource Extraction
Social Justice
Sustainability
Toxic Chemicals
War and Peace

Keywords

"The Shadow of Gold"; Bullfrog Films; conflict gold; mountain top removal; cyanide; artisanal miners; DRC; Congo; Peru; China; US; Canada; Mount Polley disaster; Montana; silicosis; mercury; fair trade jewelers; Ross Norman; James Ledbetter; arsenic; heavy metal; tailings ponds; tailings disasters; Shaun Dykes; Bonnie Gestring; Muskmata; Jacinda Mack; Red Chris gold mine; Malartic gold mine; Cochrane Hill gold mine; Amjad Rihan;

00:00:16.658 --> 00:00:18.992
[brooding music]

00:00:42.075 --> 00:00:43.783
[water gurgling]

00:00:57.283 --> 00:00:59.533
[flame roaring]

00:01:30.492 --> 00:01:32.742
[officiant] The purity of
the gold is a symbolization

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of the purity of
the love that you guys have

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for one another in your hearts.

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Gold doesn't tarnish over time.

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Gold will always be pure.

00:01:40.492 --> 00:01:41.700
-I will.
-I will.

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-Always.
-Always.

00:01:43.075 --> 00:01:44.325
-Be there.
-Be there.

00:01:44.325 --> 00:01:45.450
[officiant] And place the ring

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upon her hand, completing

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the circle.

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Try that one on,
and see if that one,

00:01:52.367 --> 00:01:53.575
see how you get on
with that one.

00:01:55.658 --> 00:01:57.658
[Alan] I did a talk at
the London Jewelry Week,

00:01:57.658 --> 00:02:00.367
so asked them, I said,
"Put your hands up,

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put your hands up in the air
if you have a gold ring on,"

00:02:03.408 --> 00:02:07.492
and so, 50%, or about 50%,
put their hands up.

00:02:07.492 --> 00:02:10.908
And I said, "Right, keep your hands up if
you know where the gold came from in your ring,"

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and they all put
their hands down.

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[dramatic music]

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[Shaun] This is like
playing detective.

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The best thing
you can use is your eyes.

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You're looking for
something different.

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We're trying to figure out
what this place looked like

00:02:45.950 --> 00:02:48.075
40 to 50 million years ago,

00:02:48.075 --> 00:02:50.783
when the mineralization
actually came into the rocks.

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Here at Calida we can
follow the vein for a mile,

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but then we hit two valleys,

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and it's not on the other side,
so where is it?

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[machine clattering]

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That becomes the challenge.

00:03:17.075 --> 00:03:18.783
[Shaun] We're probably
going to be spending a million,

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million and a half
this year on this project.

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If it's successful, we'll spend
another four, five million next year.

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In exploration,
you have huge, huge rewards,

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but huge, huge risks
of actually finding something.

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Sometimes it's flakes
the size of a pinhead.

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Holy crap!

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Thought I found some gold
there for a minute. [laughs]

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This is where we get
down a little bit more.

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If you notice, right in here,
right around the brown,

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you see all the little specks?
That's where the gold occurs.

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You get enough of those, that
makes it an economic deposit.

00:04:14.158 --> 00:04:16.867
[dramatic music]
[airplane engine roaring]

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[Ross] Gold travels discretely.

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Most days of the week
at Heathrow Airport

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there'll be between
five and ten aircraft landing

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with a sizable shipment of
gold going into a secure vault.

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In London's stock markets,

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it's all about this,
a physical market.

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It's all about the hard metal.

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It is very narrowly
controlled and confined

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between gold vaults,

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and then it's released
into the retail market.

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Now, the interesting thing about
a one-ounce gold bar or coin

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is it holds its value
in the very, very long term.

00:05:07.200 --> 00:05:09.658
Money dissolves,
whereas gold maintains

00:05:09.658 --> 00:05:12.742
what economists call
purchasing power parity.

00:05:12.742 --> 00:05:16.867
It's a safe-haven asset, and it'll protect
you in times of economic uncertainty.

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A safe-haven asset
is not just what you buy,

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it's also where you keep it,
which is why here,

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clients can walk in
and buy it, take it home.

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Some of our clients,
and we don't like it,

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bury it in their gardens.

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[brooding music]

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If you had a one-ounce
coin in Biblical times,

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2,000 years ago, it would
buy you a suit of clothing.

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In Henry VIII's time,

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an ounce of gold would
buy you a suit of armor.

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And today you can get suited
and booted for 1,000 pounds.

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It maintains its value
in the long term,

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unlike money, which decays.

00:06:01.867 --> 00:06:03.867
[machine stamps]

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If you made it
an infinite supply,

00:06:05.325 --> 00:06:07.533
well, then it
would have no value,

00:06:08.200 --> 00:06:10.408
so scarcity is what gives
it its economic power.

00:06:13.075 --> 00:06:14.742
So much of the modern
financial world

00:06:14.742 --> 00:06:17.950
is extraordinarily
complex and abstract,

00:06:17.950 --> 00:06:21.658
and gold is very concrete. You can hold it,
you can dig it out of the ground,

00:06:21.658 --> 00:06:24.825
and it feels therefore
reliable to people.

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When the economy does poorly,
a lot of people buy gold.

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[brokers yelling]

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[Ross] From January 2000,
gold went up 16% year-on-year,

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until 2008,
when the economic crisis hit.

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Then it traveled at 24% a year,

00:06:45.742 --> 00:06:47.908
so gold went absolute ballistic.

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Gold is not an asset class,
it's a religion.

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And people have a view about
gold which goes beyond

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what is realistic about
any normal asset class.

00:07:03.575 --> 00:07:05.575
[brooding music]

00:07:12.200 --> 00:07:15.158
[James] It is so linked
to our sense of ourselves

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in ways that I think many
people don't even recognize.

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[Shaun] It's built into
our whole psyche.

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Gold is like that.

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No other element has that same
pizzazz, nothing like gold.

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You have the gold bugs,
some people that love gold,

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so they will invest.

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Sometimes I call it mining
the public. [laughs]

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It's a huge gamble,
and that's why people do it.

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140, there's about 400,000...

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[Shaun] They're addicted,
just like gambling.

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You have got people that
are crazy about gold,

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and they are just like
going to the casino,

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and betting on
the roulette wheel.

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The odds are slightly better
on the roulette wheel. [laughs]

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[explosions booming]

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[brooding music]

00:09:00.617 --> 00:09:02.783
[ominous music]

00:09:06.117 --> 00:09:08.825
[metal clanking]

00:09:13.992 --> 00:09:16.117
[James] Had the gold
not been discovered,

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it's very hard to imagine
the United States

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occupying the kind of
central place in the world

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that we see after World War I.

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But it is really, really integral to
the country's economic history,

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and we sort of think that we should be
at the center of the world at some level,

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and in part I think
that has a lot to do

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with the discovery of gold here.

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And the feeling that,

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"but of course,
it's our birthright.

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God put the gold there,

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because he wanted the United
States to be prosperous."

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That's the way that
people thought.

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[water trickling]

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[tranquil music]

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[Shaun] The potential here is
for a million ounces of gold.

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So, I went
and took a look at it,

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and said, "Okay, how are
we going to go after this?"

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So, we have to explore.

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Because of the technology,
the rise in price,

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that lowers the cost,
and that's what it's all about.

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What does it cost for you
to produce an ounce of gold?

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[Bryan] There was
hundreds of people

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up and down this crick
during the Depression,

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and if they would work
six or seven days a week,

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they could scratch
out enough gold

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to trade for groceries
at Emigrant.

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-Yeah.
-But it saved them.

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It saved them in that respect.

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-They were mining for food.
-Yes.

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[Bryan] You know, my mother
and father-in-law

00:11:06.783 --> 00:11:08.908
were among the ones doing that.

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[Joseph] I have photos,
and there's not a single tree

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anywhere on these hillsides,

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'cause the old miners
cut 'em all down.

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Why would we want
to go back to that?

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[Joe] When we first heard
about this project,

00:11:28.492 --> 00:11:30.575
then we got the scoping notice
from the forestry service,

00:11:30.575 --> 00:11:33.617
first thing we did is we went
and found this technical report.

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You look on the map here,
and you go, oh,

00:11:35.283 --> 00:11:38.325
it's literally everything
we see in front of us,

00:11:38.325 --> 00:11:40.325
plus most of everything
that's behind us.

00:11:41.158 --> 00:11:42.408
It's the whole valley.

00:11:43.825 --> 00:11:47.408
They're saying that there's
two billion tons of ore here.

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[Shaun] The top
500 to 1,000 feet

00:11:52.033 --> 00:11:54.700
has been explored just
about everywhere.

00:11:54.700 --> 00:11:58.533
Before you had to have
30 gram gold per ton.

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Today that's super
high grade for us.

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We're down to mining
half a gram per ton.

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[Joseph] That's something like
300 trucks a day,

00:12:08.867 --> 00:12:10.950
365 days a year, for 20 years.

00:12:15.825 --> 00:12:19.575
They've told me this, "We're not going to
come up and rape and pillage your backyard.

00:12:19.575 --> 00:12:21.575
We would never do that."

00:12:21.575 --> 00:12:22.825
Those were their words.

00:12:23.867 --> 00:12:26.450
I'm like, "You can't take a
billion tons of ore out of here,

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plus all the waste rock,

00:12:28.158 --> 00:12:31.242
without destroying this
incredible landscape."

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I mean, look at it.

00:12:32.367 --> 00:12:34.117
[tranquil music]

00:12:59.450 --> 00:13:01.033
[geyser rumbling]

00:13:03.283 --> 00:13:05.867
[Bryan] Yellowstone tourism
has been increasing

00:13:07.117 --> 00:13:11.283
without a hiccup,
hardly, since 1946.

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71 years of growth.

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That's pretty dependable.

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[wood crunching]

00:13:18.408 --> 00:13:20.075
Industrial-size gold mines,

00:13:21.200 --> 00:13:24.117
the money leaves here,
it doesn't stay here.

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Our pioneering-spirited
entrepreneurs,

00:13:31.075 --> 00:13:32.492
that money stays here.

00:13:36.908 --> 00:13:39.742
[water splashing]

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[Aaron] I came to Yellowstone
Park as a sophomore in college.

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All of it just seemed
so wild and untouched

00:13:54.658 --> 00:13:56.867
that I was very drawn to it.

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This is a giant
life source for us.

00:14:02.075 --> 00:14:05.283
The quality of life
that this brings

00:14:06.242 --> 00:14:08.533
is as rich as, you know,

00:14:08.533 --> 00:14:11.283
any dollar figure that
you could possibly need.

00:14:14.283 --> 00:14:19.658
It is a very uneasy feeling
to think that one toxic spill,

00:14:19.658 --> 00:14:21.533
and it would definitely not be

00:14:21.533 --> 00:14:23.450
the same river that it is today.

00:14:25.742 --> 00:14:29.367
The risk outweighs
any possible reward,

00:14:29.367 --> 00:14:31.908
and I don't think that gambling

00:14:31.908 --> 00:14:34.867
with our quality
of life is worth it.

00:14:34.867 --> 00:14:37.992
[brooding music]

00:14:37.992 --> 00:14:41.492
[Bonnie] One of the big impacts
from gold mining operations

00:14:41.492 --> 00:14:43.200
are acid mine drainage.

00:14:44.942 --> 00:14:46.942
And this is what it looks like.

00:14:46.942 --> 00:14:51.025
This is acid mine drainage, um,
that I collected downstream

00:14:51.025 --> 00:14:54.358
from the Zortman-Landusky
Gold Mine here in Montana.

00:14:56.067 --> 00:14:58.733
The sulfuric acid
is like battery acid,

00:14:58.733 --> 00:15:02.900
so it's toxic to fish and other
aquatic life downstream.

00:15:06.108 --> 00:15:08.192
[Shaun] You've got
the environmental opposition,

00:15:08.192 --> 00:15:10.400
which won't allow you to build
anything near anybody.

00:15:11.608 --> 00:15:13.567
They absolute try to protect
everything under the sun.

00:15:15.692 --> 00:15:19.025
Yet, for your camera,
your sound, everything here,

00:15:19.025 --> 00:15:21.317
it's all metal, everything,
everybody needs metal,

00:15:21.942 --> 00:15:23.233
so where are you
going to get it from?

00:15:25.692 --> 00:15:26.983
[woman] Let me get
this out of the way.

00:15:26.983 --> 00:15:28.983
[people chattering]

00:15:31.400 --> 00:15:33.817
[woman laughing]

00:15:39.858 --> 00:15:42.442
It would help the local economy.

00:15:42.442 --> 00:15:44.317
Young people
can't afford to live here.

00:15:44.317 --> 00:15:46.567
But there's opportunity, too,

00:15:46.567 --> 00:15:49.358
for young people to
make good money here,

00:15:49.358 --> 00:15:51.733
with some imagination,
and a work ethic.

00:15:51.733 --> 00:15:56.608
There's an interesting difference
between a product that is gold,

00:15:56.608 --> 00:15:58.358
and an experience.

00:15:58.358 --> 00:16:00.942
And what we make
a living off of here

00:16:00.942 --> 00:16:03.442
is the experience
of this landscape,

00:16:03.442 --> 00:16:05.275
and the value of the beauty.

00:16:05.275 --> 00:16:09.483
It's much harder
to compare to my ring.

00:16:09.483 --> 00:16:11.900
Somehow this is more
valuable than an experience,

00:16:11.900 --> 00:16:13.733
when actually it's the opposite.

00:16:15.067 --> 00:16:18.858
[man] The risk is big, so if
you're going to do mining,

00:16:18.858 --> 00:16:21.608
then make sure you've
got a long-term way

00:16:21.608 --> 00:16:25.025
to pay back the loss
if there was a disaster.

00:16:25.025 --> 00:16:26.358
Just start there.

00:16:26.358 --> 00:16:28.900
[brooding music]

00:16:33.067 --> 00:16:37.025
[Bonnie] Most gold these days
are low-grade deposits,

00:16:37.025 --> 00:16:39.775
where there's a small
percent of gold

00:16:39.775 --> 00:16:42.358
interspersed in
a large volume of rock.

00:16:45.692 --> 00:16:48.650
20 tons of mine waste
are generated

00:16:48.650 --> 00:16:51.817
in order to produce
just one small ring.

00:16:54.483 --> 00:16:58.067
The most common method of mining
gold is cyanide leaching.

00:16:59.150 --> 00:17:01.942
They're using a cyanide
solution to extract the gold.

00:17:08.067 --> 00:17:11.525
Inevitably we see at so many
sites around the country

00:17:11.525 --> 00:17:15.525
where the company leaves, the
company files for bankruptcy,

00:17:15.525 --> 00:17:19.400
and we're left with these
very toxic sites forever.

00:17:23.233 --> 00:17:26.400
[Shaun] Gold has always had a
huge benefit, but also a fear,

00:17:26.400 --> 00:17:28.442
because of
the magic word, cyanide,

00:17:28.442 --> 00:17:30.817
big tailings ponds,
and these type of things.

00:17:31.942 --> 00:17:33.983
We come here regularly to talk,

00:17:33.983 --> 00:17:37.067
to update the city council,
show them what we're doing.

00:17:37.067 --> 00:17:39.358
We've got environmentalists,
we've got public relations,

00:17:39.358 --> 00:17:41.525
we've got government relations,

00:17:41.525 --> 00:17:43.275
and so it has very
little impact.

00:17:43.275 --> 00:17:45.317
[truck engines revving]

00:17:47.775 --> 00:17:52.942
[Bonnie] I reviewed the track record
of 27 operating gold mines,

00:17:53.525 --> 00:17:58.358
responsible for roughly
93% of US gold production,

00:17:58.358 --> 00:18:02.358
and we found that
100% of these mines

00:18:02.358 --> 00:18:06.067
had experienced spills
of hazardous materials.

00:18:06.067 --> 00:18:08.358
[tranquil music]

00:18:08.358 --> 00:18:11.400
Mining technology is
generating a larger and larger

00:18:11.400 --> 00:18:14.108
volume amount of mine waste
that has to be stored

00:18:14.108 --> 00:18:17.108
behind taller
and taller tailings dams,

00:18:17.108 --> 00:18:19.358
and that's just
a recipe for disaster.

00:18:23.983 --> 00:18:27.108
The most recent example
is in British Columbia,

00:18:27.108 --> 00:18:28.983
just over the border
from where I am.

00:18:44.525 --> 00:18:45.983
[mud gurgling]

00:18:48.275 --> 00:18:50.900
[newsreader] It may be the
worst environmental disaster

00:18:50.900 --> 00:18:52.983
in British Columbia's history.

00:18:53.733 --> 00:18:56.983
10 million cubic
meters of wastewater,

00:18:56.983 --> 00:18:59.233
containing dangerous chemicals,

00:18:59.233 --> 00:19:01.150
poured into local waterways,

00:19:01.150 --> 00:19:05.067
when the earthen dam surrounding
a tailings pond collapsed.

00:19:10.067 --> 00:19:12.567
[Roger] The lake was just full.

00:19:12.567 --> 00:19:16.608
You couldn't see anything
but wood, big piles of wood.

00:19:18.275 --> 00:19:20.983
Some of it was,
like, 20 feet high.

00:19:23.442 --> 00:19:24.858
Man...

00:19:25.817 --> 00:19:28.025
it was just,
you just didn't know...

00:19:30.192 --> 00:19:31.233
Yeah, there was no words.

00:19:33.817 --> 00:19:39.650
[Jacinda] When the disaster happened, communities
all around responded like it was a death.

00:19:42.692 --> 00:19:44.900
People were crying,
and people were grieving,

00:19:44.900 --> 00:19:49.858
because they knew that having
all of what was in that mine,

00:19:50.900 --> 00:19:53.650
all of that pollution,
rush down into the water,

00:19:54.733 --> 00:19:57.317
and to pollute the entire
Fraser Watershed.

00:19:57.317 --> 00:20:00.067
[dramatic music]

00:20:17.317 --> 00:20:20.025
[Fred] We knew we only
had days to fish.

00:20:22.233 --> 00:20:24.567
We had fishermen
from my community

00:20:24.567 --> 00:20:27.108
go down and fish the Fraser,

00:20:27.108 --> 00:20:29.608
and they fished it hard
for at least two days,

00:20:29.608 --> 00:20:31.067
because they were worried about

00:20:31.067 --> 00:20:32.525
the tailings
affecting the salmon.

00:20:33.983 --> 00:20:37.733
And being a salmon people,
that was devastating.

00:20:41.650 --> 00:20:43.817
[man] We have First Nations
that live all along

00:20:43.817 --> 00:20:45.858
-the Fraser River down to the ocean...
-Right, and that's--

00:20:45.858 --> 00:20:47.650
...that are depending
on that salmon,

00:20:47.650 --> 00:20:49.608
which we just put our nets
in the river yesterday.

00:20:49.608 --> 00:20:52.650
If we have that impact,
then we are responsible.

00:20:52.650 --> 00:20:55.317
[woman] Is there any issue
with us collecting around?

00:20:55.317 --> 00:20:57.067
[helicopter blades whirring]
[tranquil music]

00:21:05.192 --> 00:21:08.442
[David] The Mount Polley dam was
designed as center-line dam.

00:21:09.358 --> 00:21:12.358
And then what happened,
money got tight,

00:21:13.317 --> 00:21:16.567
and they decided that they were
going to build it much steeper.

00:21:17.817 --> 00:21:21.150
They'd had a lot of rain,
they had a lot of excess water.

00:21:21.150 --> 00:21:25.108
They were trying to manage it by
storing it in their tailings pond,

00:21:25.108 --> 00:21:27.067
and then treating it,
and discharging it,

00:21:27.067 --> 00:21:29.192
and they were waiting
for a discharge permit.

00:21:29.192 --> 00:21:32.025
So that damn was just as full
as it was allowed to be.

00:21:33.400 --> 00:21:36.567
What they didn't know was that
under a portion of the dam

00:21:36.567 --> 00:21:38.067
was an old glacial lake.

00:21:39.858 --> 00:21:44.608
And that glacial lake basically
behaves like a banana peel,

00:21:44.608 --> 00:21:49.192
and that piece of dam just
gave way, just slipped right out.

00:21:49.192 --> 00:21:52.192
[ominous music]

00:21:52.192 --> 00:21:54.442
[man] Will you tell me how much
your insurance coverage is,

00:21:54.442 --> 00:21:56.358
and do you have
the money if it costs

00:21:56.358 --> 00:21:58.400
half a billion dollars
to clean it up?

00:21:58.400 --> 00:21:59.942
We don't have 400
million dollars in the bank,

00:21:59.942 --> 00:22:02.650
so we'll have to
make that to do it.

00:22:08.442 --> 00:22:09.692
[Dimitri] I became involved
in environmental

00:22:09.692 --> 00:22:11.025
and human rights class actions,

00:22:11.025 --> 00:22:12.650
against a range of companies,

00:22:12.650 --> 00:22:14.442
many of which were from
the mining sector.

00:22:14.442 --> 00:22:16.400
We have the largest team
of class action lawyers

00:22:16.400 --> 00:22:17.233
in the country.

00:22:18.317 --> 00:22:19.817
Politicians at all
levels of government

00:22:19.817 --> 00:22:21.567
seem to be quite
comfortable with the fact

00:22:21.567 --> 00:22:23.317
that this industry is

00:22:23.317 --> 00:22:25.733
the dominant force
in Canada's economy,

00:22:25.733 --> 00:22:28.317
and one upon which we've become
extraordinarily dependent.

00:22:29.317 --> 00:22:31.775
This is Brookfield Place,
this is where Barrick Gold,

00:22:31.775 --> 00:22:34.442
the largest gold-mining company
in the world, is headquartered.

00:22:34.442 --> 00:22:38.317
This is where the major law firms that
service the mining industry are situated.

00:22:38.317 --> 00:22:41.233
Over here you have the Royal
Bank of Canada's headquarters,

00:22:41.233 --> 00:22:43.817
which is the largest
bank in Canada.

00:22:43.817 --> 00:22:45.317
And just a little bit
further up Bay Street,

00:22:45.317 --> 00:22:47.025
we have the Toronto
Stock Exchange,

00:22:47.025 --> 00:22:49.192
the largest mining
stock exchange in the world.

00:22:53.483 --> 00:22:56.525
[Dimitri] 50% of the world's mining
companies are based in Canada,

00:22:57.567 --> 00:23:00.358
and as a result of its importance
to the Canadian economy,

00:23:00.358 --> 00:23:02.525
it's acquired a very
considerable influence

00:23:02.525 --> 00:23:03.858
over the political process.

00:23:05.400 --> 00:23:08.150
One of the wealthiest
Canadians, Murray Edwards,

00:23:08.150 --> 00:23:10.650
is a major shareholder
of Imperial Metals.

00:23:12.858 --> 00:23:15.108
Murray Edwards had a
very close relationship

00:23:15.108 --> 00:23:17.525
with the former BC premier,
Christy Clark.

00:23:17.525 --> 00:23:19.775
We say yes to the men
and women who work here.

00:23:21.108 --> 00:23:25.025
[Dimitri] In the 2012 provincial
election, Mr. Edwards organized

00:23:25.025 --> 00:23:28.233
a one million dollar
fundraiser for Ms. Clark,

00:23:28.233 --> 00:23:30.942
and at the end of the day she
actually squeaked out a victory,

00:23:30.942 --> 00:23:32.608
and her policies towards
the mining sector

00:23:32.608 --> 00:23:34.817
have been extraordinarily
favorable.

00:23:34.817 --> 00:23:37.567
[Murray] If you can't get
the resource out of the ground,

00:23:37.567 --> 00:23:40.025
you are going to imperil the
future of our entire province.

00:23:42.525 --> 00:23:44.108
[Dimitri] No meaningful
penalty was imposed

00:23:44.108 --> 00:23:45.983
upon Imperial Metals.

00:23:45.983 --> 00:23:49.108
And it's difficult not to conclude

00:23:49.108 --> 00:23:54.108
that part of the reason for
that is because the government

00:23:54.108 --> 00:23:56.650
was favorably inclined towards
Mr. Edwards and his company

00:23:56.650 --> 00:23:59.317
because of the financial
support he'd given to them.

00:24:14.400 --> 00:24:16.442
[Phil] We decided
to focus primarily

00:24:17.025 --> 00:24:19.067
on looking at the
quality of the sediment

00:24:19.067 --> 00:24:21.483
and the material that got
delivered into the lake,

00:24:22.317 --> 00:24:24.817
and to try and start
to understand

00:24:24.817 --> 00:24:26.192
the effect on the ecosystem.

00:24:30.483 --> 00:24:32.192
[Ellen] The community
really appreciates the fact

00:24:32.192 --> 00:24:33.483
that we're doing
independent research,

00:24:33.483 --> 00:24:34.692
and we're not paid by the mine.

00:24:36.025 --> 00:24:38.150
So, our allegiance is
with the community.

00:24:43.150 --> 00:24:47.358
The sediment gets ingested by
filter-feeding invertebrates, zooplankton.

00:24:48.275 --> 00:24:49.817
And then those zooplankton

00:24:49.817 --> 00:24:51.942
are the fish food
that gets eaten.

00:24:54.567 --> 00:24:57.483
[Phil] Not surprisingly,
the sediment is contaminated.

00:24:58.400 --> 00:25:02.525
Copper, arsenic,
selenium, vanadium,

00:25:02.525 --> 00:25:04.358
there's some mercury as well.

00:25:09.983 --> 00:25:11.400
It still looks beautiful.

00:25:11.400 --> 00:25:12.858
Visually it's no different,

00:25:12.858 --> 00:25:14.900
but there's that cloud
hanging over it,

00:25:14.900 --> 00:25:17.483
as well as the cloud
within the water,

00:25:17.483 --> 00:25:19.317
of the fact that
it's an environment

00:25:19.317 --> 00:25:21.817
that's been heavily disturbed,
and even contaminated.

00:25:25.775 --> 00:25:28.733
[Jacinda] There are more
unanswered questions regarding
the salmon in the water,

00:25:29.733 --> 00:25:32.900
because we're in year three
of a four-year salmon cycle,

00:25:32.900 --> 00:25:35.192
so next year will be really
telling, and the year after.

00:25:36.567 --> 00:25:40.650
[chanting]

00:25:44.858 --> 00:25:47.108
[Jacinda] It's really important
that we get it right with Mount Polley

00:25:47.108 --> 00:25:49.358
and that there's some
justice brought,

00:25:49.358 --> 00:25:52.150
because this is setting
really dangerous precedents,

00:25:52.150 --> 00:25:55.108
in British Columbia,
in Canada, around the world.

00:25:55.108 --> 00:25:57.108
[ominous music]

00:26:04.858 --> 00:26:07.233
[David] People actually die
in these tailings dam failures.

00:26:10.608 --> 00:26:12.150
There's nobody that knows

00:26:12.150 --> 00:26:13.983
how many of these
failures there are.

00:26:15.775 --> 00:26:17.150
The reason they get covered up

00:26:17.150 --> 00:26:19.150
is because it's an embarrassment

00:26:19.150 --> 00:26:21.608
to the company that
has been operating it,

00:26:21.608 --> 00:26:24.400
and it's embarrassing
to the regulatory agency

00:26:24.400 --> 00:26:27.483
that supposedly had
responsibility for that.

00:26:27.483 --> 00:26:29.525
[people chanting]

00:26:33.150 --> 00:26:36.150
[Jacinda] The first thing that comes to mind
when I hear the word gold is, like, dirty gold.

00:26:37.233 --> 00:26:40.067
It's death, it's violence,
it's colonization.

00:26:42.608 --> 00:26:44.733
I think of all of
the indigenous peoples

00:26:44.733 --> 00:26:47.150
of North and South America,
and around the world.

00:26:47.150 --> 00:26:49.525
People from all over
who have suffered.

00:26:49.525 --> 00:26:52.942
For them to be so rich, there are
so many who have to be so poor.

00:26:52.942 --> 00:26:54.858
That's what I think of
when I see gold.

00:26:54.858 --> 00:26:56.400
[brooding music]

00:28:03.442 --> 00:28:07.275
[Ann] Gold is seen as
a symbol of wealth,

00:28:07.275 --> 00:28:09.025
and symbol of prosperity.

00:28:10.192 --> 00:28:13.067
It's been valued for
thousands of years.

00:28:16.025 --> 00:28:18.067
Chinese people worry

00:28:18.067 --> 00:28:20.942
about what's going to
happen in the future.

00:28:20.942 --> 00:28:23.900
They purchase gold as
a hedge against, you know,

00:28:23.900 --> 00:28:27.983
what might happen in China,
in case there is, uh,

00:28:27.983 --> 00:28:31.025
you know, some kind of
trade war with the US,

00:28:31.025 --> 00:28:33.233
or some other financial
crisis that comes up.

00:28:34.233 --> 00:28:38.483
People feel that gold will be
seen as something valuable,

00:28:38.483 --> 00:28:41.400
regardless of what
the situation may be.

00:28:41.400 --> 00:28:43.317
[dramatic music]

00:29:04.817 --> 00:29:06.442
[brooding music]

00:29:16.275 --> 00:29:17.567
[elevator rattling]

00:30:21.025 --> 00:30:23.067
[drill rattling]

00:31:35.525 --> 00:31:37.608
[tranquil music]

00:31:59.608 --> 00:32:01.483
[Shanta] It's effectively
like sand,

00:32:01.483 --> 00:32:04.525
and those particles
can scar the lungs.

00:32:04.525 --> 00:32:07.775
So, you could be in there
for extremely long hours,

00:32:07.775 --> 00:32:12.817
you know, all day, each day, in circumstances
where you don't have proper masks,

00:32:12.817 --> 00:32:16.192
you don't have proper
respiratory protection,

00:32:16.192 --> 00:32:18.150
and you don't have
proper ventilation.

00:32:18.817 --> 00:32:21.775
Once it arises,
silicosis is incurable.

00:32:40.400 --> 00:32:42.067
[explosions booming]

00:32:45.775 --> 00:32:47.608
[fire crackling]

00:34:13.942 --> 00:34:15.900
[brooding music]

00:34:46.025 --> 00:34:49.400
[Shanta] Unfortunately, time and
time again, what I've seen personally,

00:34:49.400 --> 00:34:53.233
is that mining companies
will do the least they can,

00:34:53.233 --> 00:34:56.442
for the least amount of cost,
if they can get away with it.

00:35:00.483 --> 00:35:03.442
It's a multi-billion-dollar industry,

00:35:03.442 --> 00:35:07.025
and yet the pay that these
guys were getting was tiny,

00:35:07.025 --> 00:35:09.442
and they were left with
a lifelong disease.

00:35:13.567 --> 00:35:15.400
[man coughing]

00:36:05.192 --> 00:36:06.942
[Shanta] If you're
an affected individual,

00:36:06.942 --> 00:36:08.483
and you're
an affected community,

00:36:08.483 --> 00:36:10.483
it is extremely difficult

00:36:10.483 --> 00:36:13.442
to basically get
your rights upheld.

00:36:13.442 --> 00:36:15.192
And one of the problems is,

00:36:15.192 --> 00:36:18.192
not only is the court
system inaccessible,

00:36:18.192 --> 00:36:20.775
but how on earth do you get
the evidence that you need

00:36:20.775 --> 00:36:23.442
to demonstrate that what you're
saying you're experiencing

00:36:23.442 --> 00:36:26.275
is actually the responsibility
of the mining company

00:36:26.275 --> 00:36:28.233
that you perceive
to be responsible?

00:36:29.900 --> 00:36:31.567
So, getting all of that,

00:36:31.567 --> 00:36:33.192
and bringing that
to a court of law,

00:36:33.192 --> 00:36:34.983
and actually getting
your rights upheld,

00:36:34.983 --> 00:36:36.275
is extremely rare.

00:36:59.150 --> 00:37:01.150
[tranquil music]

00:37:44.900 --> 00:37:47.400
[brooding music]

00:39:01.150 --> 00:39:03.317
[engine rattling]

00:39:40.150 --> 00:39:42.067
[brooding music]

00:40:56.650 --> 00:40:58.067
[engine rattling]

00:42:37.692 --> 00:42:39.942
[Michael] With
gold prices increasing,

00:42:39.942 --> 00:42:42.775
some of the South
American armed groups

00:42:42.775 --> 00:42:45.775
have very consciously
moved into gold

00:42:45.775 --> 00:42:47.233
as an alternative
source of funding

00:42:47.233 --> 00:42:49.358
from narcotics and drugs.

00:42:50.900 --> 00:42:53.817
In Colombia and Peru,
two of the countries that produce

00:42:53.817 --> 00:42:56.317
the most amount of
cocaine in the world,

00:42:56.317 --> 00:42:58.275
the value of the
illegal gold trade

00:42:58.275 --> 00:43:00.483
now exceeds the value
of that drugs trade.

00:43:46.400 --> 00:43:48.067
[explosion booming]

00:44:23.942 --> 00:44:28.650
[Kevin] A simple way to get some
of the gold is to use mercury.

00:44:34.442 --> 00:44:37.233
It's extremely toxic to life.

00:44:37.233 --> 00:44:41.317
It's the most powerful neurotoxin
on the planet, mercury.

00:44:41.317 --> 00:44:42.775
so there's a huge health problem

00:44:42.775 --> 00:44:44.525
immediately
to the practitioners,

00:44:45.692 --> 00:44:47.400
a local, severe health problem

00:44:47.400 --> 00:44:48.983
also to the community
around them,

00:44:48.983 --> 00:44:51.525
because it all becomes
contaminated with mercury.

00:44:51.525 --> 00:44:53.400
[brooding music]

00:45:02.733 --> 00:45:04.233
[furnace roaring]

00:45:04.233 --> 00:45:05.775
[Kevin] It's a gas
when you evaporate it,

00:45:05.775 --> 00:45:07.983
so it goes all the way
around the world.

00:45:07.983 --> 00:45:09.858
It's a global pollutant,

00:45:09.858 --> 00:45:12.525
and it lands in the oceans,
and contaminates fish,

00:45:12.525 --> 00:45:14.858
and all of us
are ultimately exposed

00:45:14.858 --> 00:45:17.275
to higher level of
mercury intake,

00:45:19.025 --> 00:45:21.067
especially if you happen to,
you know, like sushi,

00:45:21.067 --> 00:45:24.483
and you eat a lot of top-level
predators from the ocean.

00:46:38.483 --> 00:46:41.567
[woman] I was thinking of something
with an engraved band on it.

00:46:41.567 --> 00:46:44.567
I've seen that around, and I thought
that was really pretty, and kind of special.

00:46:44.567 --> 00:46:47.608
So, our main kind of solitaire
is called a Love Note,

00:46:47.608 --> 00:46:52.650
and we've just finished a really nice
engraving on it, in rose gold, so--

00:46:52.650 --> 00:46:55.692
[interviewer] Do you know anything
about the way gold is produced

00:46:55.692 --> 00:46:57.775
in their usual conditions?

00:46:59.308 --> 00:47:03.683
Um, only the usual things that
you kind of read in the news,

00:47:03.683 --> 00:47:07.058
and the horrible labor standards,
that do exist in some places,

00:47:07.058 --> 00:47:10.183
but I haven't really dug very
deeply into it, have you?

00:47:10.183 --> 00:47:13.600
No, blimey. I guess part of it
is that we have to find,

00:47:13.600 --> 00:47:15.850
you have to find somebody that
knows about these things, right?

00:47:16.475 --> 00:47:17.892
-Wow.
-Wow.

00:47:17.892 --> 00:47:20.433
[man] We've seen
several different jewelers,

00:47:20.433 --> 00:47:23.267
and we immediately
ask about the origin,

00:47:23.267 --> 00:47:25.142
and what they can
tell us about the gold,

00:47:25.142 --> 00:47:26.933
'cause we know very little,
and we need somebody that,

00:47:26.933 --> 00:47:28.683
you know, we can trust to
tell us something about it.

00:47:30.392 --> 00:47:32.517
[Alan] More and more,
as the younger generation,

00:47:32.517 --> 00:47:34.433
the millennials that
are coming up now,

00:47:34.433 --> 00:47:36.308
these people want to know,

00:47:36.308 --> 00:47:38.058
especially buying wedding rings
and engagement rings.

00:47:39.225 --> 00:47:41.267
They really care,
and want to know

00:47:41.267 --> 00:47:43.475
where the gold comes
from in their ring.

00:47:43.475 --> 00:47:45.642
[interviewer] Do you know
the term, "conflict gold?"

00:47:45.642 --> 00:47:47.433
-Conflict diamonds--
-Conflict diamonds resonates more.

00:47:47.433 --> 00:47:49.100
Probably similar, you know,

00:47:49.100 --> 00:47:52.142
the idea that these
minerals are being mined

00:47:52.142 --> 00:47:54.600
to fund terrorist activities,

00:47:54.600 --> 00:47:56.767
or civil wars,
and stuff like that.

00:47:56.767 --> 00:47:59.058
Presumably it applies
to gold as well.

00:47:59.642 --> 00:48:02.058
I think we definitely don't want
to be part of the conflict gold by,

00:48:02.058 --> 00:48:04.600
you know, funding it or
contributing to it in any way.

00:48:04.600 --> 00:48:06.600
[people yelling]
[whistle blowing]

00:48:25.892 --> 00:48:27.767
[missile roaring]

00:48:34.683 --> 00:48:36.142
[gunshots]

00:48:57.975 --> 00:48:59.725
[Michael] If you ever visit
an artisanal gold mine,

00:48:59.725 --> 00:49:02.183
the first thing you realize
is that gold mining

00:49:02.183 --> 00:49:06.017
is incredibly dangerous,
and incredibly hard work.

00:49:13.642 --> 00:49:16.225
Armed groups themselves
don't want any part of it.

00:49:18.558 --> 00:49:20.475
They use their weapons
and their force

00:49:20.475 --> 00:49:24.183
to illegally tax those miners,
or to extort them,

00:49:24.183 --> 00:49:27.183
or simply to steal from them
at regular intervals,

00:49:27.183 --> 00:49:30.975
using gold as a means of
sustaining their operations,

00:49:30.975 --> 00:49:33.058
buying weapons, paying troops,

00:49:33.058 --> 00:49:34.975
laundering their money,
et cetera.

00:49:44.033 --> 00:49:46.033
[Alan] And when I moved into
the jewelry sector,

00:49:46.033 --> 00:49:48.658
I discovered actually, there
was no supply chain management.

00:49:48.658 --> 00:49:52.283
No one where anything
came from, and to me,

00:49:52.700 --> 00:49:56.408
that is a lack of ethics,
it's a lack of integrity,

00:49:56.408 --> 00:49:58.742
and the consumer doesn't know
what they're actually buying.

00:49:58.742 --> 00:50:00.908
[tranquil music]

00:50:05.742 --> 00:50:08.158
[gold sizzling]

00:50:09.033 --> 00:50:12.325
Pure in the gold sense, undoubtedly
the gold is pure gold,

00:50:12.325 --> 00:50:14.033
but we don't know if its history

00:50:14.033 --> 00:50:15.992
is as pure as the gold content.

00:50:17.075 --> 00:50:19.325
Very large quantities of
gold get mixed together

00:50:19.325 --> 00:50:22.200
in a way that then becomes
very difficult to understand

00:50:22.200 --> 00:50:24.450
where the gold came from,
who sold it to you.

00:50:26.200 --> 00:50:29.408
Gold, unlike drugs,
or other illicit commodities,

00:50:29.408 --> 00:50:33.783
is not inherently illegal. It's perfectly
legal to sell gold on international markets.

00:50:33.783 --> 00:50:36.075
All you need to do
is find a weak link

00:50:36.075 --> 00:50:37.950
in the international
supply chain,

00:50:37.950 --> 00:50:39.908
where you can slip
your quantity of gold

00:50:39.908 --> 00:50:41.533
into the trade flows,

00:50:41.533 --> 00:50:43.158
without anyone asking
too many questions,

00:50:43.158 --> 00:50:45.325
or looking too hard at
where it came from.

00:50:46.425 --> 00:50:49.517
[dramatic music]

00:51:05.492 --> 00:51:09.617
[Amjad] Around 2012, when the
new guidelines were being issued,

00:51:09.617 --> 00:51:13.825
to stop the trade in what's
called conflict minerals,

00:51:13.825 --> 00:51:16.617
different countries
introduced, uh,

00:51:16.617 --> 00:51:18.992
new third-party audit schemes,

00:51:20.075 --> 00:51:24.325
so that's when things actually
started to come to me.

00:51:26.033 --> 00:51:28.575
At the time there were
three refineries in Dubai.

00:51:29.617 --> 00:51:33.158
Kaloti has about 50%
of the market share.

00:51:42.408 --> 00:51:44.033
25 years ago,

00:51:44.033 --> 00:51:47.367
we start the business
between me and my uncle.

00:51:48.158 --> 00:51:51.533
We are importing the gold
from Suriname, for example,

00:51:52.158 --> 00:51:54.533
and Miami,
they are exporting to us.

00:51:55.658 --> 00:51:57.742
[tranquil music]

00:52:12.117 --> 00:52:14.992
[Amjad] You're starting,
it's like a green field,

00:52:14.992 --> 00:52:16.908
you don't know what
you're going to see.

00:52:18.575 --> 00:52:22.825
The team started going
to visit the refineries,

00:52:22.825 --> 00:52:27.283
and talking to them, and checking there
what they have and what they don't have.

00:52:29.025 --> 00:52:32.025
[Monzer] We receive the gold,
we confirm the purity with the customer.

00:52:32.025 --> 00:52:34.650
If he confirm,
then we give for refinery.

00:52:35.858 --> 00:52:38.775
Slowly I'm starting
hearing from the team

00:52:38.775 --> 00:52:40.983
that things
don't look very pretty.

00:52:40.983 --> 00:52:42.442
[flame hissing]

00:52:43.525 --> 00:52:46.817
I'm not talking about somebody
coming to sell an ounce of gold.

00:52:47.608 --> 00:52:49.483
We're talking about
people selling kilos

00:52:50.275 --> 00:52:54.942
in the excess of 5.2
billion US dollars

00:52:55.858 --> 00:52:59.942
were used in one year
as cash payments.

00:53:00.775 --> 00:53:06.192
So, that represents about
maybe over 40% of Kaloti's business.

00:53:17.817 --> 00:53:20.483
One of the easy ways to hide

00:53:20.483 --> 00:53:23.733
the origin of
something suspicious,

00:53:23.733 --> 00:53:28.067
is you use cash, because
you cut the traceability.

00:53:28.067 --> 00:53:30.817
It doesn't go through
the banking system,

00:53:30.817 --> 00:53:32.525
so, money laundering 101.

00:53:33.942 --> 00:53:36.525
This is the place where
we receive the shipments.

00:53:36.525 --> 00:53:38.275
They're coming
from the airports.

00:53:38.275 --> 00:53:42.817
This is from Africa coming,
this is from Europe.

00:53:42.817 --> 00:53:44.692
[brooding music]

00:53:44.692 --> 00:53:47.650
[Amjad] The process itself
lacks, really, any scrutiny.

00:53:49.233 --> 00:53:52.650
If you are a gold smuggler,
and bringing it to Dubai,

00:53:52.650 --> 00:53:55.317
customs officials
will ask you to show

00:53:55.317 --> 00:53:57.150
the last boarding pass.

00:53:57.150 --> 00:54:01.358
And even if your gold was
coming, let's say, from DRC,

00:54:01.358 --> 00:54:04.525
going to Paris, and then
from Paris to Dubai,

00:54:04.525 --> 00:54:08.442
they will look at the last
boarding pass of the last trip,

00:54:08.442 --> 00:54:11.733
and register that as
the country of origin.

00:54:26.458 --> 00:54:28.500
We realized that
some of these names,

00:54:28.500 --> 00:54:31.875
they're actually
suppliers of Kaloti.

00:54:33.083 --> 00:54:35.333
One of those suppliers done

00:54:35.333 --> 00:54:40.417
more than 400 million US
dollars in cash with Kaloti,

00:54:40.417 --> 00:54:44.000
that was linked
to those smugglers

00:54:44.708 --> 00:54:47.333
uh, that are trading
with the DRC.

00:56:29.292 --> 00:56:32.917
[Amjad] Kaloti was not doing
proper due diligence,

00:56:32.917 --> 00:56:35.875
and committed
serious violations,

00:56:35.875 --> 00:56:38.042
that in many cases
were systematic.

00:56:41.750 --> 00:56:46.500
We had obligations to report
and disclose the findings,

00:56:46.500 --> 00:56:51.250
and EY just decided that
they don't want to disclose,

00:56:51.250 --> 00:56:53.500
period, to anybody.

00:56:53.500 --> 00:56:56.750
They wanted to protect the
reputation of the refiners,

00:56:56.750 --> 00:57:00.083
as well as the reputation
of the gold trade in Dubai.

00:57:01.292 --> 00:57:03.708
They watered down
certain findings.

00:57:04.667 --> 00:57:06.458
So everything we identified--

00:57:07.833 --> 00:57:10.167
serious violations,
shocking violations--

00:57:11.208 --> 00:57:13.042
never seen the light of the day.

00:57:14.475 --> 00:57:18.183
They wanted me to take part
in that, and I refused.

00:57:19.017 --> 00:57:20.933
I refused to sign their reports,

00:57:20.933 --> 00:57:24.767
and I refused
to cooperate, uh...

00:57:24.767 --> 00:57:28.558
with them in hiding,
uh, those findings.

00:57:28.558 --> 00:57:31.308
[brooding music]

00:58:02.017 --> 00:58:05.100
[Amjad] Becoming a whistleblower,
you just overnight find yourself

00:58:05.100 --> 00:58:09.017
being labeled as a troublemaker,
or you're blacklisted.

00:58:10.100 --> 00:58:13.892
[interviewer] Have you been back
to Dubai since your going public?

00:58:14.767 --> 00:58:17.267
Absolutely not,
I'm not-- [sighs]

00:58:17.267 --> 00:58:20.267
It's a risky place for me,
let's put it this way.

00:58:21.308 --> 00:58:23.683
It wouldn't be safe
for me to go back to Dubai.

00:58:29.642 --> 00:58:31.308
[metal clanking]

00:58:33.267 --> 00:58:34.767
[Michael] I think
recent history has shown

00:58:34.767 --> 00:58:36.600
we can't just rely
on regulators,

00:58:36.600 --> 00:58:38.850
we can't just rely on auditors
and industry schemes.

00:58:40.017 --> 00:58:42.600
What we're seeing in
jurisdictions like Dubai is that

00:58:42.600 --> 00:58:45.225
these laws just aren't being
enforced rigorously enough,

00:58:45.225 --> 00:58:47.558
and there just isn't enough
political will, really,

00:58:47.558 --> 00:58:49.308
to bring about that change.

00:59:05.283 --> 00:59:07.867
[Robin] When I reflect
on my early career,

00:59:07.867 --> 00:59:12.367
I can't say for sure that
I wasn't complicit in somebody

00:59:12.367 --> 00:59:15.658
being exploited at some
point in the supply chain,

00:59:15.658 --> 00:59:17.992
because that's a very murky,

00:59:17.992 --> 00:59:19.575
and remains a very
murky supply chain.

00:59:20.825 --> 00:59:22.783
I co-founded Fair Trade
Jewellery Company

00:59:22.783 --> 00:59:24.742
with the idea of
producing a product

00:59:24.742 --> 00:59:27.742
where we could tell people
where everything came from.

00:59:28.992 --> 00:59:31.950
I think we've done,
in a very short amount of time,

00:59:31.950 --> 00:59:33.992
something that no one else
has done in the past,

00:59:33.992 --> 00:59:36.658
especially out of
a place like DRC.

00:59:46.700 --> 00:59:50.075
We're working with
the Canadian NGO, IMPACT,

00:59:50.075 --> 00:59:52.783
and we have a great
exporter, Fair Congo.

00:59:54.450 --> 00:59:58.283
[speaking Swahili]

01:00:08.992 --> 01:00:13.617
[singing in Swahili]

01:00:32.867 --> 01:00:34.408
[speaking Swahili]

01:01:24.867 --> 01:01:27.242
[speaking Swahili]

01:02:03.408 --> 01:02:05.783
[Robin] In each step of the way
there's at least one document,

01:02:06.533 --> 01:02:07.783
and sometimes more than one.

01:02:11.075 --> 01:02:14.283
We know what miner,
based on their miner ID,

01:02:14.283 --> 01:02:17.992
we know the pit, and what
they produced each day.

01:02:22.200 --> 01:02:25.367
And I could see
the dark marks, the bars
are about the same size,

01:02:25.367 --> 01:02:28.242
and that the backs of them,
that weren't so shiny, look the same.

01:02:30.200 --> 01:02:33.533
There are much easier
ways to get gold.

01:02:33.533 --> 01:02:35.200
I could buy gold from
the Canadian Mint.

01:02:35.200 --> 01:02:36.908
It would be less expensive,

01:02:36.908 --> 01:02:38.783
but it wouldn't
solve any problems.

01:02:40.117 --> 01:02:43.325
By purchasing it legally,
and exporting it legally,

01:02:43.325 --> 01:02:45.033
you're actually having
a spin-off effect

01:02:45.033 --> 01:02:47.492
in terms of decreasing
the level of conflict,

01:02:47.492 --> 01:02:50.533
by not having as much black
money around to buy arms.

01:03:18.033 --> 01:03:19.825
[tranquil music]

01:03:21.983 --> 01:03:26.900
[Kevin] In a poor community, let's say
they're making a dollar a day, or $2 a day,

01:03:26.900 --> 01:03:29.942
one of their targets for
improvement on poverty

01:03:29.942 --> 01:03:33.983
is to get that group
of people up to $5 a day.

01:03:33.983 --> 01:03:35.317
Just $5 a day.

01:03:36.400 --> 01:03:39.067
Well, the good news is then,
I've never visited

01:03:39.067 --> 01:03:41.775
an artisanal gold mining
camp in the world

01:03:41.775 --> 01:03:44.192
where people aren't
making at least $5 a day.

01:03:48.692 --> 01:03:51.858
I founded the Artisanal Gold
Council to build a vehicle

01:03:51.858 --> 01:03:53.775
that's easily trusted by miners.

01:04:02.358 --> 01:04:04.900
You don't need to use
mercury to mine gold.

01:04:06.900 --> 01:04:10.192
There's methods to completely
avoid the use of mercury,

01:04:10.192 --> 01:04:12.983
and increase the amount
of gold that's recovered.

01:04:19.275 --> 01:04:20.650
You know, it's not
about making a law

01:04:20.650 --> 01:04:22.317
that says you can't use mercury,

01:04:22.317 --> 01:04:24.233
it's about engaging with
the mining communities,

01:04:24.233 --> 01:04:27.983
and helping them to
employ better practices,

01:04:27.983 --> 01:04:29.733
increasing their safety,

01:04:29.733 --> 01:04:32.733
even helping them manage
the wealth that's generated.

01:04:45.733 --> 01:04:48.317
The artisanal mining
sector is injecting wealth

01:04:48.317 --> 01:04:50.733
into parts of the world
that really need it,

01:04:50.733 --> 01:04:53.817
so we're starting to see
different types of stakeholders

01:04:53.817 --> 01:04:57.108
view the sector not as
a problem, but as a solution.

01:04:58.733 --> 01:05:00.858
Gold can deliver wealth
right in the middle

01:05:00.858 --> 01:05:02.775
of a remote rural community.

01:05:04.025 --> 01:05:06.067
It's a good engine,
it's a good seed.

01:05:06.067 --> 01:05:08.108
[tranquil music]

01:05:23.275 --> 01:05:26.567
[Corrado] The industry has
seemingly always been enabled,

01:05:26.567 --> 01:05:28.317
first by new science,

01:05:28.317 --> 01:05:30.942
and then effecting new
process with that science.

01:05:47.775 --> 01:05:51.108
[Corrado] There's over 700 miles
of underground tunnels

01:05:51.108 --> 01:05:53.442
right beneath us
where we're driving now.

01:05:54.900 --> 01:05:56.733
It was literally considered

01:05:56.733 --> 01:05:58.692
one of the richest
places on Earth.

01:06:00.400 --> 01:06:03.442
It's hard to imagine
the old-timers could extract

01:06:03.442 --> 01:06:06.692
over eight million ounces
of gold with picks and shovels.

01:06:07.817 --> 01:06:10.108
The wealth that was created,

01:06:10.108 --> 01:06:12.525
the technologies that
were developed here,

01:06:12.525 --> 01:06:13.983
were used all over the world.

01:06:13.983 --> 01:06:15.942
[tranquil music]

01:06:37.775 --> 01:06:40.817
[Corrado] Cyanide processing
is over 120 years old.

01:06:42.400 --> 01:06:46.900
What we need is a breakthrough
where it is clearly faster,

01:06:46.900 --> 01:06:49.442
it is clearly safer,

01:06:49.442 --> 01:06:52.525
it is clearly more
efficient and cheaper.

01:06:52.525 --> 01:06:54.775
Then the industry will
have to respond to it.

01:06:54.775 --> 01:06:57.275
-[audience applauding]
-[trumpet fanfare music]

01:07:06.225 --> 01:07:09.725
[Fraser] What this process involves
is what we call bromination,

01:07:09.725 --> 01:07:13.850
followed by the very
elegant isolation process,

01:07:13.850 --> 01:07:15.475
that is very, very
selective for gold.

01:07:28.767 --> 01:07:32.267
It is maybe 50 times faster
than the cyanide process,

01:07:32.267 --> 01:07:35.683
and then you add onto that
the fact that it is not toxic.

01:07:37.350 --> 01:07:40.933
[Corrado] What I really am excited
about is that the science works.

01:07:41.683 --> 01:07:44.433
We're not really
at an inventing-it stage.

01:07:44.433 --> 01:07:48.600
Sir Fraser has done that, right?
We're at a process improvement.

01:07:48.600 --> 01:07:53.267
In process improvement, the obstacles
there are much, much smaller to get over.

01:08:00.850 --> 01:08:02.808
There you are,
gold in all its glory.

01:08:02.808 --> 01:08:03.933
Wonderful, wonderful.

01:08:13.767 --> 01:08:16.683
[Roger] So, there's round about
three million tons of ore here.

01:08:16.683 --> 01:08:20.767
We'll put a whole network of,
like, crawly pipes on the top,

01:08:20.767 --> 01:08:22.725
and then we'll use our
new leaching agent

01:08:22.725 --> 01:08:25.433
to actually soak
through the heap,

01:08:25.433 --> 01:08:27.725
-and then we'll have all of that--
-Will we not infiltrate

01:08:27.725 --> 01:08:30.350
the heap with the pipes as well?

01:08:30.350 --> 01:08:32.142
-No, you just do it--
-Just over the top?

01:08:32.142 --> 01:08:33.683
-Just over the top.
-Oh, okay, right over the top.

01:08:33.683 --> 01:08:35.308
It filters down.
And then the pipe,

01:08:35.308 --> 01:08:37.183
as you see, a pipe over there,

01:08:37.183 --> 01:08:40.017
-that's when the golden solution...
-Ah, yeah, yeah.

01:08:40.017 --> 01:08:41.642
-...will come down...
-Will come racing down there,

01:08:41.642 --> 01:08:43.558
-into the pond.
-...into the pond,

01:08:43.558 --> 01:08:45.767
and we'll collect it
in the pond there,

01:08:45.767 --> 01:08:47.308
and then we'll take
that material...

01:08:47.308 --> 01:08:48.683
[Fraser] It would be
my dream come true

01:08:48.683 --> 01:08:50.267
if it were to be adopted

01:08:50.267 --> 01:08:51.933
across the planet.

01:08:51.933 --> 01:08:53.892
That will give me
enormous satisfaction

01:08:53.892 --> 01:08:57.183
that I've contributed
something to society,

01:08:57.183 --> 01:08:59.392
and to the environment,
on a global scale.

01:08:59.392 --> 01:09:01.225
[tranquil music]

01:09:04.183 --> 01:09:08.017
[Fraser] We are looking at an industry that
has been in place for more than a century,

01:09:08.017 --> 01:09:11.392
and in the hardcore
parts of that industry,

01:09:11.392 --> 01:09:14.892
there's going to be
resistance, as always.

01:09:14.892 --> 01:09:16.308
You know,
"We've always used cyanide,

01:09:16.308 --> 01:09:18.392
and we'll continue
to use cyanide,"

01:09:18.392 --> 01:09:21.017
and they feel they're
comfortable using it,

01:09:21.017 --> 01:09:24.017
and they don't want to know
about something that's new.

01:09:25.100 --> 01:09:27.683
[ominous music]

01:09:46.725 --> 01:09:49.058
[man] It's got an eerie feeling
to the place still, doesn't it?

01:09:54.642 --> 01:09:56.725
This is what's at
the bottom of the lakehead.

01:09:58.767 --> 01:09:59.808
So, that's the stuff.

01:10:01.600 --> 01:10:04.433
[Roger] I don't think that
stuff decomposes, does it?

01:10:04.433 --> 01:10:07.225
-No, that's there forever.
-[man] That's there forever.

01:10:15.933 --> 01:10:18.725
Yeah, this is... pretty grim.

01:10:21.142 --> 01:10:22.933
That's supposed to be drinkable.

01:10:22.933 --> 01:10:25.558
Most people, as far as I know,
are using bottled water.

01:10:29.550 --> 01:10:32.425
[Jacinda] A lot of people
don't trust what's going on.

01:10:34.008 --> 01:10:36.133
They don't trust
what the mine says,

01:10:36.133 --> 01:10:38.425
that the water's fine, the fish
is fine, everything's fine,

01:10:38.425 --> 01:10:39.883
like there's no problem.

01:10:42.550 --> 01:10:44.633
[soil clattering]

01:10:44.633 --> 01:10:47.258
[brooding music]

01:11:09.258 --> 01:11:11.092
[Jacinda] The mine
has faced no charges.

01:11:12.133 --> 01:11:14.342
They're basically
just getting away

01:11:14.342 --> 01:11:17.342
with the largest environmental
disaster in Canadian history.

01:11:20.383 --> 01:11:22.675
[Dimitri] It's shocking that
that company hasn't had to pay

01:11:22.675 --> 01:11:24.050
a very substantial penalty.

01:11:25.258 --> 01:11:28.467
It's shaping up to be another example
of how the general public

01:11:28.467 --> 01:11:30.925
is made to bear the cost
of these activities,

01:11:30.925 --> 01:11:33.967
whilst the executives
appropriate the profits.

01:11:47.217 --> 01:11:48.883
[Jacinda] Those practices
have to change.

01:11:49.717 --> 01:11:51.800
We have to have a higher
valuation on water

01:11:51.800 --> 01:11:53.258
than we do on gold.

01:12:02.842 --> 01:12:05.133
[Shaun] At Emigrant there's
no plans to do any mining,

01:12:05.133 --> 01:12:06.675
'cause we haven't
found anything yet.

01:12:07.925 --> 01:12:11.092
We're probably at least
ten years from that decision.

01:12:11.092 --> 01:12:12.092
It depends on what we hit.

01:12:13.717 --> 01:12:16.175
And so, if there is no mine,
then there's no worries.

01:12:17.050 --> 01:12:20.592
Let's find out, because
until we find out for sure,

01:12:20.592 --> 01:12:22.342
people are going to keep coming,

01:12:22.342 --> 01:12:23.925
'cause that's the lure of gold.

01:12:36.250 --> 01:12:38.875
[Bryan] Clean water, clean air,
beautiful mountains.

01:12:40.583 --> 01:12:43.458
This is a wonderful
recreational area,

01:12:43.458 --> 01:12:45.042
and I hope it stays that way.

01:12:53.167 --> 01:12:54.583
[Bryan] What is that, huh?

01:12:54.583 --> 01:12:55.542
Good boys.

01:12:58.042 --> 01:13:00.333
[Bryan] Why would
you destroy an economy

01:13:00.333 --> 01:13:03.708
for something that's
historically short-lived?

01:13:03.708 --> 01:13:08.375
A boom-and-bust industry,
that has a horrible reputation.

01:13:09.292 --> 01:13:10.375
And they've earned it.

01:13:12.000 --> 01:13:14.125
[tranquil music]

01:13:14.125 --> 01:13:16.292
We went to Washington, DC,

01:13:16.292 --> 01:13:19.500
and we got to talk to
Representative Zinke,

01:13:20.417 --> 01:13:22.958
and Senator Daines,
and Senator Tester.

01:13:25.250 --> 01:13:28.250
[man] Yellowstone National Park
is the first national park,

01:13:28.250 --> 01:13:30.500
and it's sacred
to all Americans today.

01:13:30.500 --> 01:13:32.333
That's why I'm excited
to announce segregation

01:13:32.333 --> 01:13:34.500
of 30,000 acres of
Forest Service land.

01:13:34.500 --> 01:13:36.208
[audience cheering]

01:13:47.042 --> 01:13:49.042
I think it's been unprecedented

01:13:49.042 --> 01:13:52.083
what the Yellowstone
Gateway Business Coalition

01:13:52.083 --> 01:13:54.458
has accomplished in two years.

01:15:31.042 --> 01:15:33.292
[brooding music]

01:15:42.833 --> 01:15:45.875
The extraction of gold is done
regardless of the impacts,

01:15:45.875 --> 01:15:47.625
and regardless of
the long-term consequences.

01:15:49.575 --> 01:15:53.908
[Amjad] We have a responsibility
to know, and the right to demand,

01:15:53.908 --> 01:15:57.367
that the gold
that we use is clean.

01:16:00.408 --> 01:16:02.325
[Shanta] And I think
the challenge really

01:16:02.325 --> 01:16:04.658
is to increase
the awareness of consumers

01:16:04.658 --> 01:16:06.283
so that they know that
there is a choice.

01:16:07.992 --> 01:16:10.950
[Alan] Our responsibility goes
back to the actual people,

01:16:10.950 --> 01:16:14.533
from whose land we are
taking the raw materials

01:16:14.533 --> 01:16:16.075
that produce our
beautiful products.

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